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考研英语

  •  文章会比较长,请有兴趣的朋友给点耐心看完,然后结合自己的想法来讨论一下,共同提高。如果有任何问题,请随时跟贴,我会尽量详细回答。
      文章共分成五篇:词汇篇、阅读篇、写作篇、测试篇、心理篇。
      
                第一篇 词汇篇

        大家都知道词汇是一切备考的基础,大纲上有多少单词,明摆着,人手一本,大家都有,各种各样词汇书也不少,都买过,
        可是都没什么大用处,背了忘,忘了背,原来啥水平,现在背一阵也就提高个10%-20%,考起试来还是很多不认识。
        要解决词汇这个问题,我的意见是从策略上就要先针对词汇准备的三个难点:“见到英文能想起中文、持之以恒变熟练、相近词辨析”,在制定自己的备考计划的时候就要从根本上能够解决这三点,否则很难在词汇上有进步。
        显然,这三点要求是从易到难的,怎么做?首先声明,这是一个笨办法,我从来不认为词汇有什么神奇的办法。但往往笨而辛苦的办法是最有效的,可以帮助你抛弃那本讨厌的考研英语词汇书。
       1、找两天时间,在你这两天本来分配给英语复习的时间里,其他啥也别干,在网上找一份标准的考研大纲词汇的电子版,用电脑打开,从头到尾扫一遍,早就认识的词就删掉,不认识的词先别管,这样电子文档里留下的都是生词,然后把这个文档发给任何一个愿意帮助你的,又不用考研,有时间的朋友,让他花点时间帮你把这些单词的顺序编辑一下,调乱点,别从第一到第10个都是A开头的就行,就是把A-Z的单词大概混一下,排除顺序对背单词的帮助;
       2、做完第一步,考研大纲词汇5500个,基本大学里混个几年,起码得有1000个上下是本来认识的吧,不然就白混了。假设不认识的是4000到4500个,应该能代表很多人的情况了。接下来在每天不复习的空余时间,把发呆、上网、打电话、看电视的时间省出来,买几叠硬的白卡片,以一周为一个循环,每天按照第1步总结出的乱序把不认识的单词抄到白卡片上,每张抄20个词,正面英文,反面中文,中文可以抄2-3个最常用的意思。一天抄10张,一天就能抄上200个单词,这4000个词在20天左右里就从大纲上转移到了电子文档里,又转移到了属于你的单词卡片上。记得把这些卡片编好号,以后有用的;    
        3、当你抄了一遍的过程结束以后,实际已经是对这些单词有了一个强记的过程,写下来的东西印象是挺深的,为以后的背诵已经打下一定的基础了。把这些卡片每天抽五张带在身上,在车上在楼梯在图书馆在食堂,任何闲暇时间都可以抽出来看看,忘了中文就翻过背面看看,一天下来这五张卡片的100个单词至少可以看上四五遍。每天晚上回到宿舍睡前把昨天的五张再翻出来看看复习下。这样一天100,一个月下来能够轮转3000个单词,这一个月时间里,这些单词实际每一个都已经见过五次以上,能够见到英文想起中文的几率已经很高了;如果每个周末能够在一个固定的时间把前几天用过的卡片拿出来,像洗扑克牌一样洗一下,重新再乱序回忆一遍,会记得更牢靠;
        4、按照自己常规的计划复习阅读、英语知识运用和写作的时候,遇到任何前几天记得的单词就在做题时检验一下,选对了就好好鼓励自己,错了没关系,再仔细回忆强记一下。按照上述方法,把5500个词可以化整为零到200张卡片,再变为每天5张,大大化解了大量单词的恐惧感,演变成每天一个持之以恒的简单任务,容易坚持,也容易收到成效。坚持下来的话,在一个多月的时间里,结合做题,基本可以把考研单词做到一个中等熟练的水平。
         5、假设您跟我一样只有三个月时间集中准备考研,那么建议在第二个月中花一定的时间系统地看一些考研名家的辅导教材,特别是集中看完型填空、词汇辨析一类的部分,从细节上就自己学过的单词作一些深入的辨析,特别是要把自己想当然一看就选了,但却选错了的题目用红笔标注出来,并积累一定量这样的题目作为以后冲刺时的重点回忆题,这个步骤的时间一定要舍得花,不光是对完型和词汇,打好了单词的基础对阅读、写作和任何其他部分都很有好处。
        6、临考前一个月把你的宝贝卡片胡乱翻,随意抽取单词来考自己,当你发现随便抽那一张,问哪一个单词你都基本认识,成功率超过90%的时候,你就可以很爽地把这些卡片飞出去扔掉,因为这些单词已经到你脑子里了。剩下要做的就是在做模拟题的时候大胆地运用这些单词的记忆,帮助自己树立信心,提高分数!第一篇词汇篇完啦,请看下篇,第二篇,阅读篇,待续。

                第二篇 阅读篇

        阅读占的分数非常多,也是最重要的部分啦。我的经验,要想把阅读搞好,前面一部的词汇是前提,只有已经能够做到大部分的考研词都能够掌握中文意义,才能谈阅读速度和技巧。至于文章里小部分的超纲词汇,那没有必要去浪费太多时间。阅读有几个问题我们觉得很痛苦:速度跟不上,长难从句搞不懂,选项辨析不清楚。我的个人观点很简单,提高分析速度和加强对选项辨析水平是我们在短短几个月可以做的,而长难从句涉及到语法、句法、结构和实词虚词、连接词等等,这方面的阅读水平不是我们这么短时间可以努力的,我个人建议放弃这方面徒劳的努力。
        先谈一下速度的问题。速度要跟上,首先是要习惯。大家想一想,如果平常从来不看英语文章,也从来不看考研这类充斥长难句还略带专业性质的文章,到做题时硬着头皮来看,能看得快吗?
        大家回忆一下平常生活里看英语文章的经验,如果这篇文章刚好是你所熟悉和习惯的内容,即使比较长的句子比较难的内容,看起来也很舒服,速度肯定有保证。打个比方,假设你很热爱体育,上周刚看场足球,今天早上看中国日报有篇英语文章报道上周那场比赛的幕后花絮,看这篇文章的时候是否很爽?
        我举这个例子的意思是说,不要为了做题和为了阅读考试才去读,尤其对于准备时间比较充分的朋友来讲,应该早早就开始逼迫自己每天花十到十五分钟去读一些英语文章,特别是要选一些略带有专业性质的文章,这样可以增加自己的知识面和敏感度,这个工作坚持一两个月后,对加强自己的语感和猜测能力是很有帮助的。试想一下,如果你突然遇到一片文章讲美国社会心理学研究的进步的新闻,你平常根本对心理学或者类似的文章碰都没碰过,一定很吃力,是不是?
        所以要提高阅读速度,首先要逼迫自己有选择地读不同专业不同内容的英语文章,从平时开始,在做题以外的时候自然地去读。当你自然地理解了一篇东西,哪怕是猜测到一些大意,这个速度比硬梆梆地去啃是快很多的。
      有了基础以后,就要做有意识的训练去改善速度。锻炼阅读速度虽然是个无形的东西,但和锻炼身体肌肉是一样的:如果每天推一样重量的杠铃,到后来就没有锻炼意义了;一开始就推100公斤,马上就受不了,肯定放弃;总是不推,比划两下就溜,到体育测验多半不及格。
        所以,要循序渐进,把自己的时间分几个阶段,个人建议大家去买一种书,叫阶梯阅读类的书,前一两个月读比自己当前水平略高一点,读起来稍有点吃力的那一级的文章,当慢慢觉得这档文章读起来速度快了,舒服了,下个月就去读高一级难度的阅读文章,依次类推。在准备期的这段时间甚至都不一定要急着做多少考研阅读题,先打好扎实的阅读基础没坏处的。等到感觉自己的速度好象有了一定进步的时候,包括词汇也有了一定进展时,再回到考研的题目上去,你会发现,速度有了保障,等于给了自己比以前更充分的时间去思考选项,成绩肯定有进步。
        至于选项辨析的问题,也是一个关键,很多朋友是文章基本看懂了,被出题人的选项搞惨了,死活辨不清A和C,哪个对,一下决心选C,又怕答案是A,来回犹豫多半错掉。这个问题我个人建议大家可以去看一本书,我用过觉得效果挺好的,就是王若平写的考试虫系列书里面讲考研阅读的那本,书店和网上应该都有卖的。这本书主要就是把历年考研阅读的选项集中在一起来分析,出题人这些选项怎么写的,应该怎么排除,错误选项的特征等等,非常有针对性,可以参考一下。
       考研阅读的另外一部分是新题型,把调乱了的文章段落排回正常的顺序,我感觉这种题,坦白讲不会有什么技巧可言,就是阅读速度跟得上,有足够的时间理解意思,然后语言感觉好,能发现其中合理的起承转合,感觉出语篇和内容的叙述先后。所以还是回归到我前面讲的速度训练上。
      新题型还有一种是选小标题,毫无疑问,这个是从雅思里学来的题,雅思考这种选段落小标题已经好多年了,要训练的话,去借一本雅思阅读的题来,只做这种题型,花不了太多时间,但是很有益处的。雅思阅读成型已久,这些模拟题很容易找。个人建议,小标题是概括该段主旨,要想选到合适的小标题,三个方向找:一、先看首句,顶多第二句,有没有哪个关键词和短语和待选小标题的词相同,若有,列为重点再仔细考察;二、扫视本段,有无某词或事物反复提到多次,若有,看小标题是否有,列为重点再仔细考察;三,若前二者不凑效,回到本段首末句,看看小标题有没有什么词是这两句里重点词的词义替换,多半就是它了。读难,说了一些体会,不够的话,请大家提问。下篇是作文。
      
               第三篇 写作篇


      关于写作,可能我的意见会被人批评说不现实,有问题,不过请大家仔细研究略作冷静分析之后再看看能否采取我说的办法。
        大家想一想,假设随便找十个同学坐在一起,会有多少人有时间经常练习作文?会有多少人能够有恒心去坚持连续五六个月一直写?也许我的观点偏激,我认为答案是几乎没有。为什么?一、作文题目千变万化,自己练了这个题目,考试肯定不考,本身写完写得再好,也不能带来信心,越练越空虚;二、没人批改,本身就是主观的东西,让朋友批改不放心,他的观点和水平又不能代替老师,自己批改就更无聊,怎么看都是那个样子,没有分数的衡量就无法鉴定自己的努力有没成效,自然难以坚持;三、我能买到的作文书,千万人一样能买到,我背的模板可能隔壁那哥们也背得正爽,一到考场上同一个老师说不定就批到两篇类似的文章,有用吗?自己都表示怀疑。
        所以,如果坚持使用现在传统的作文复习模式,一周看那么一两次,一个月才勉强提起劲头来写几篇,考前背十个八个模板,沉浸在"first,second,third"和"furthermore,therefore"之类所谓起承转合的自慰中,不可能获得特别满意的分数!主观题不好,更不可能把英语总分提高到一个优势地位!
                  如果您同意我上述观点,请往下看

        要拿作文好分数,一要速度,保证在考试有限时间里自如地写完;二要像个样子,写出来的东西起码像是英文文章,而不是汉语的翻译;三要有点特色,能让考官一眼扫过去感觉与众不同;四要整洁清楚,把考官手上那两三分的印象分彻底拿过来。
        解决速度问题,要培养自己脑子里对时间的掌握,进而培养在同样时间内能写出更多字数的能力,就练这个,别的不管。不管你每周写一篇还是写十篇,任何时候写任何东西,一定要在无干扰的环境下,专心来写,先用手表统计三到四次,看看自己在当前状况下写完需要的平均时间。假设需要35分钟,然后搞个闹钟,调30分钟闹,脑子里就绷根弦,逐渐能做到闹钟响时写得完,速度就明摆着提升了。逐渐这样一点点缩短限定自己的时间,速度的提升会变成习惯,就好办些啦。起码在现有写作水平没提高时,速度有提升。          
        希望写出地道文章,谴词造句还比别人高出一截水平的话,让考官眼前一亮的话,自己闷着,对着一大堆所谓的考研辅导拼命写是没用的。辅导书里好多文章都是中国式英文,公式化,僵化,越背感觉越糙。
        个人建议,要另辟蹊径。既然考研作文已经开始考察应用文,图表这类实用文章,那我们就彻底跟着命题组风向走,而且往上走,直接买一本好的雅思作文书!会有些人开始骂我,这不是好高务远吗?!别急,你可以先借本雅思书,看看作文部分再说。 
        雅思书的作文模板很多都是参考英国人的辅导书给出的,文风地道,句式多样,又有图表作文,书信等等,很合适的。反正也是干背模板,还不如背水平高的。这样的模板起码与普通考研书的template有区别,容易带来清新的感觉。而且雅思培训里对于图表和书信等应用文的训练有很多特别的练习,练习起来比较有意思,对训练实际水平很有作用。
        不过要注意,关键在于把雅思书里的范文取其精华,总结十到二十个好的开头结尾句型,总结十种左右的起承转合,背上一定量的优秀句子,但不要教条死抄,不要花时间在雅思里面的单词上,尤其在把模板句运用到考研写作时,不要生硬地把以前见过的所谓好单词也搞进去,免得用错,而且容易被考官发现破绽。最好是灵活运用,背的是结构和表达法,而不是砖头一般的句子。
      速度靠自己训练,地道的英文风格和特别的表达要靠参考雅思作文来获得。
      最后,我们必须花十天到半个月时间逼迫自己专门训练,使自己的作文整洁。一要成行,不要写得东倒西歪,潦草不堪;二要通过训练减少野蛮和很令人反感的大块涂改,尽量使自己的文字涂改斯文些;三要保持稿纸整洁白皙。一篇整洁整齐清楚的文章,绝对能提升印象分,花点时间来准备,绝对是个技术难度不高但回报很高的工作!
                  写作篇到此,下篇测试篇


          第四篇 测试篇


        复习的成效需要测试来检验。个人建议把考研的模拟测试分为四个阶段。
                  
      第一阶段 检验原始水平
      要检测自己是否有进步,必须要知道原始起点在哪里。建议使用2-3套稍旧一点的考研旧真题,用尽量模拟实战的时间和环境来做一个检测,使用真题是为了使检测标准符合考研的真实要求,模拟实战是为了使结果真实,接近自己的实际水平。测试2-3套题目的是使结果平均可信,排除偶然性。作文部分可以请水平高的朋友或者相熟的老师帮忙批改,听力部分当然就不用管啦。
        这一步只需要花2-3天时间,可以清楚了解自己目前的水平,包括大概所处的分数段,各部分题目所花的大概时间,单词和作文的水平也能大致感觉出来。
      第二阶段 专题训练
      在这个阶段,应该按照考试各部分的要求,制定清楚的计划对词汇、阅读、翻译、写作各部分做重点的分部训练,不必急着一套套地做模拟题,那是没用的。在自己各部分题目的水平没有提高之前,匆忙地做整体套题只会继续打击原本就脆弱的自信。
        词汇除了背诵之外,个人建议看老朱的书,他的书在词汇和完型这个部分还是讲解得很不错,有一定的参考价值。不过只看这部分就可以了,别的不管。
        阅读我用的吴永麟,这个书难度比较稳定,没有太多起伏,量也足够了。我的做法是用完整的时间,排除干扰,关起门来模拟实战,一次4篇,连续完成。隔天训练一次,记录所花时间和正确率。
        翻译坦白说,我复习时一秒钟都没看,就考前看了一天,把握了一下大纲和考试的要求。觉得非专业人士花时间勉强训练一下,所翻出来的词句也不见得高明多少,充其量在一些翻译的技巧和语句组织上有进步。所以当时决定靠阅读和词法的积累算了,也对翻译有帮助。
        写作如同上篇里讲过了,我是用雅思阅读的句篇结合考研的词汇来写,比较有信心。这个阶段建议坚持1-2个月,坚定执行计划,时间足够的话,会有明显的进步。
        第三阶段 再测试
        在上一阶段的后期,慢慢就可以过渡到模拟测试阶段,结合继续的复习。这段时间应该至少每周做2套模拟题,巩固复习的成效,同时通过模拟的结果来总结自己哪部分还是相对要薄弱些,并在复习中有所侧重地多花时间解决它。
        有人会问哪些模拟题好,说实话,这个很难说,模拟题还是模拟题,始终和真题有差距,而且每年的情况不一样,要具体情况具体分析吧。可能还是相信以前命题组里出来的教授的题目吧。
        我的做法一般周一到五抽2套模拟测试来做,周六做一套考研真题,周日来总结这几套的情况,做一些分析。最重要的一个步骤是把词汇和完型里错的题目记录下来,并把做错的阅读的选项和原文的对应用荧光笔画一下,都归纳到自己的错题库里,以后临考复习时警惕一下。这个阶段建议坚持1个月。
      第四阶段 实战测试
      离考试还有30天左右的时间时,使用最近的五套真题,隔天实战测试一下。用答题卡,用作文纸,掐表,关门闭户,用铅笔,全部模拟实战,测水平。
        最好手边有一本有答案详细讲解的辅导书,仔细研究错题的原因,补充知识点,这样可以防止自己对错题原因的主观臆断。
        这件事做完大概离考试还有20天左右,建议放松3天,别做题,让自己蹦紧的神经relax一下,然后开始花几天研究自己的错题库,防止同样错误的再犯。考前最后10天安排合适的时间做最新的一两套真题,就是去年和前年的,做完就拉倒吧,对自己的水平心里有数啦,不再想什么,用最放松的心情上考场。
      此篇完,最后一篇也许是最重要的,心理篇。

                完结篇 心理篇
       1、只信自己,勿看别人
        别人买什么书,别人上什么辅导班,听说哪份材料好,谁谁谁考了多少分,一概不管
      2、胆大心细脸皮厚
      大胆坚决执行自己的复习计划,每个步骤工作要仔细,脸皮要厚,抵抗外界一切诱惑和干扰            
        3、乐观自信
        开心快乐度过每一天,每完成一阶段复习都要奖励和鼓励自己,相信自己的成功
        4、张驰有度
        适当安排休息和娱乐,不要把弦绷断
      5、心平如镜
      无论在考前还是考后,保持平静心情,感觉差不要自责,感觉好了更勿炫耀,一份平静和从容更能得到上天的欣赏。

  •  (一)1.目前金融危机正深深地影响到社会的方方面面  2. 人们对如何应对金融危机的不同看法 3. 你的看法     
      The Impact of Financial Crisis   
      Presently, international financial crisis is becoming more and more serious, which has been influencing every part of our daily life. Job hunting is increasingly becoming difficult; food is getting more expensive; and people’s everyday living is much harder than before etc.   
      As to how to deal with the crisis, people have different opinions. Some people hold a more positive view, who believe that the present crisis is not very serious, and we can overcome it in just a few years with the micro-control policy of our government. With the help of the government, living expenses will soon slow down. Things will get better, and we needn’t worry too much. But some other people take an opposite side. They believe that things are the other way round, and the present crisis is getting worse and worse. This crisis is worldwide and cannot be solved in a few years. People’s everyday life will become much harder.   
      As for me, I have strongly felt the full negative impact this crisis has brought on me. Food in the supermarket is more expensive than that in the last few months; everyday expenses are getting higher. However, I don’t think this crisis is beyond control. I firmly believe that with the right policy of our government this crisis cannot outdo us. we should face this crisis calmly and do things with a more practical mind.

     

    (2)  1.刚参加工作时遇到了哪些困难。 2.产生这些困难的原因。 3.如何克服这些困难。
      The Problems I Had When I First Started to Work
      When I first started my work in an electronic company, I did meet with many problems. Two main problems are: I did not know how to conduct business with clients and customers and I had no idea about how to deal with a bargain and persuade them to take my offer. The second problem was that there was no room for me and I had to find a room far away from the company. It took me more than one hour on the way to the office and then came back.
      The reason for the first problem was that I had no practical experience and I needed to learn and practice. As for the second problem the company could not take care of every employee’s housing. And it was our responsibility to look after ourselves. 
      To overcome these problems, I worked hard and learned from any one modestly. After half year’s work I became experienced and began to make money. So I was able to rent a single apartment near my company. Now everything is all right to me.

     

     (3)1.合作的意义。 2.合作在工作中的重要性(举例)。 3.怎样培养合作的能力?
      The cooperation
      Cooperation means that people should work together smoothly for the purpose of mutual benefit. In the work they should help each other and learn from each other. They should have mutual respect, too.
      Cooperation is important in our work. Without it, we will fail. For example, two years ago, our institute managed to get a joint research project with a university in the south of China. At first everything went on all right. Then there was a misunderstanding and argument. Finally, the cooperation could not continue and the project failed. This example can show the importance of cooperation. I believe there are more examples.
      I think people should start to cultivate their sense of cooperation when they are very young. For example, in primary schools, pupils should be taught how to play with others, and how to study together. At university, students should be told frequently that in today’s world, individual is impossible to make big achievements, and they have to work or conduct research with others. Besides, they should be given a chance for team work. Then I think that people will be able to cooperate well with others.

     

     

     

    (4) 1.终身学习对每个人的重要性。2.终身学习的方式有多种……3.你认为你应该采取哪种方式,为什么?

    Life-long Learning

      In today’s society, life-long learning has become very important for everyone. This is because one needs to renew his knowledge continuously in order to meet the needs of his work and fast development of the society.

      There are several ways for one to take a life-long learning. One way is to take a part-time education program. It means that one is learning part time while he is working. The program could be at undergraduate level or graduate level. The second way is to study by oneself. You can learn whatever you need for your work on your own. You can learn from books, from TV programs or from Internet or radio.

      In my opinion, life-long learning is necessary for us. We should choose one of the ways mentioned above, which depends on your own personal preference and interest. I prefer the first one because this kind of learning is systematic and formal. With the help of the teachers, it is easier to learn and quicker to get what you need for your work.

     

    (5) 1. 当今的年轻人越来越强调个性发展;2. 发展个性是否意味着忽视中国的传统美德;3. 你的观点。

      Should We still Cherish Chinese Traditional Virtues

      Today's youth do things in their own ways, spend money on whatever they want and talk to people in their own languages——personality development is overstated by young people these days. To some of them, personality means to be totally different from who their parents used to be.
      But the problem is that during their pursuit of their personal goals they ignore some of the traditional virtues of which their forefathers were proud. Take the question of fidelity to elders for example. With better education and different experiences, some young people find it's hard to agree with their parents any longer. They have a feeling of superiority and even sometimes turn their back on their elder parents.
      To me, personality development and traditional virtues have nothing to do with right or wrong. In our society, we need them both. These virtues help you to become a better Chinese, while personality development will improve your own character.

     

    (6)  1、 当移居国外时,有人喜欢入乡随俗。2、 有人喜欢坚持故乡风俗习惯 3、 你的看法。

      Keeping Customs

      When people move to another country, they not only face a different environment and language, but also different customs. Some people choose to follow the customs of their adopted country, they may find that it helps them to adapt more quickly to the new society. They have something to discuss and share with their new neighbors, and sharing customs is one way for people to feel closer to one another. Thus, following the new customs may help immigrants feel more at home. It may also help them to see the positive things in their new environment and do forget their feelings of homesickness.

      On the other hand, some people choose to continue following their own customs may also find that it helps them feel more at home. There are many things to adjust to in another country, and following their traditional customs may help people feel more secure in the new surroundings. More importantly, our customs are a part of us. They are an expression of the culture that has shaped us. This is something that most of us would like to pass down to our children and share with others.

      To sum up, our customs have value and are an important part of our culture. Therefore, I don't believe that we should abandon our traditional customs when we move to another country. At the same time, I believe that we should learn about the customs of our new home and follow those that appeal to us. In this way, we can remember and celebrate our old culture while adapting to our new one.

     

    (7)1) 目前,在社会上有这样的一种说法,文凭越高越吃香;(2) 而有些人则认为文凭不等于知识;(3) 你的观点。

       Knowledge and Diploma

      With the development of the society, more and more people enroll in the postgraduate examination for getting a high diploma. It is believed that high diploma equals to high ability and profound knowledge. Most companies are inclined to hire the people with high diploma. It seems that having high diploma means a better future.

      However, is it really true that high diploma equals to high ability or profound knowledge? Some people do not agree on this kind of idea. They claim that ability or knowledge means more than diploma. Take Bill Gates, the head of the Microsoft, for example, he does not have a MBA degree which is believed to play a vital role in the success in commercial life. Furthermore, Sam Walton of Wal-Mart Stores Inc. does not a MBA degree, but they are the most successful man in commercial.

      In my opinion, diploma does not equal to knowledge. A diploma is a piece of paper which establishes your education degree. But your true ability and the real knowledge come from your hard work and endowment. If you got a diploma by dishonest behavior, no matter how high a diploma it is, it was just a piece of paper, and you were as blank as that paper

      

    (8): 和谐社会中的宽容与理解

      Understanding

      The drawing depicts a common incident in our daily lives. The exchange of words between the man and woman shows a lot about them. While the man's politeness is demonstrated when apologizing for having done something wrong, something that should be noticed even more is the understanding of the woman in accepting his apology.

      Understanding is a virtue of human beings. It allows us to enjoy the warmth of the sunshine and can bridge the gap of human relationships. Understanding, which can be considered as patience and as a kind of self restrained behavior, is needed in every part of our lives. Understanding can also be regarded as a good behavior. It refers to a good way in which we sincerely and genuinely show politeness, kindness, friendship and respect to people. It is very important for our relationships with others because we are often judged by our manners, which shows our education, our cultural quality and our inner qualities.

      With understanding, we can warm each other's hearts and win friendships, and this can be sometimes even more powerful than gun barrels. So, in our daily life, we should always follow the golden rule: Do, as you would like to have done to you.

     

     

    (9)热点:运动与健康

      Exercise and Health

      For thousands of years, physical activity has been associated with health. Today, science has confirmed their link, with overwhelming evidence that people who lead active lfestyles are less likely to die early, or to experience major illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes and colon cancer.

      Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals that lead a person to feel peaceful and happy. Exercise can help some people sleep better. It can also help with mental health issues such as mild depression and self-esteem. Plus, exercise can give people a real sense of accomplishment and pride at having achieved a certain goal.

      Exercising can help you look better, too. People who exercise burn calories and look more toned than those who don't. In fact, exercise is one of the most important parts of keeping your body at a healthy weight. When you exercise, you burn food calories as fuel. If a person eats more calories than he or she burns, the body stores them away as fat. Exercise can help burn these stored calories.

      Finally, exercising to maintain a healthy weight also decreases a person's risk of developing certain diseases, including diabetes and high blood pressure.   

    (10)热点:城市交通

      Urban Transportantion

      Good transportation is very important to the success of both individuals and a city. Without efficient means of transportation, people will waste a great deal of time going to and from work. This will make them tired and less productive in their jobs. People may rely on either private or public transportation to get them to and from work. If a choice has to be made between spending money on improving the roads for private vehicles or improving public transportation, I would choose the latter for the following reasons.

      First of all, better public transportation systems, including buses, trains and subways, will encourage more people to use them rather than drive their own cars. This will reduce the total amount of traffic on the roads and make travel quicker for everyone. Second, using public transportation saves energy.

      A bus which carries 60 people is a far more efficient use of fuel than 60 individual cars driving the same route. And last but not least, greater use of public transportation causes less pollution and will keep the environment cleaner. There are many reasons to support spending money on public transportation. Good transportation systems make a city cleaner, more efficient and more convenient. This improves everyone's quality of life and can make the city more prosperous.

      Therefore, I support spending money on public transportation systems rather than improving roads.  

     

     

    (11)热点: 就业压力 1. 近几年出现了大学生就业难的现象2. 产生这种现象的原因(如大学生追求的目标过高,专业不对口等)3. 如何解决这一问题(改变就业观念,大学生再培训等)

      College Students’ Job Hunting

      In recent years, college students find it increasingly difficult to get a job. It sounds strange since young college students are usually intelligent, well-educated phenomenon, aspirant and eager to bring their talent into full play. Then what underlies the strange phenomenon?

      There are several reasons for this. To begin with, nowadays college students aim too high. All they want are “good” jobs which could offer good salary, comfortable working conditions, high social status among others. Consequently, most college students are unwilling to accept vacant jobs they consider not “good” enough. Another reason is that there is a big gap between the majors some students study in school and the demands of vacant jobs. So companies think some students are not fit for the jobs.

      Solution to the problem requires efforts on both the society and the students. The companies should value the students, talent and knowledge while the latter should not merely aim at material gains. They should be down-to–earth in building up their career.

      Furthermore, they should face their weak points so as to improve themselves and be more competent.  

     

    (12). Free Admission to Parks? 1. 越来越多的公园现在免费向公众开放,目的是… … 2. 有人认为这样做会带来一些问题 3. 在我看来… …

    Nowadays, more and more parks are open to the public for free. Free admission to parks will motivate peoples interests in history, arts and culture. In this way, parks can provide people with easier access to knowledge and amusement, which is of vital importance for the whole nation.

    However, some people hold that free admissions to parks can bring about many problems. Since anybody can enter a park without paying, the park can be overcrowded. Besides, parks will face financial problems since they can’t make profits from the admission fee. Finally, some bad manners such as dropping rubbish anywhere will do harm to the environment of the parks.

    In my opinion, free admission to parks is necessary, but we should take some measures to protect parks, for example, limiting the number of visitors. Only in this way, can we use the parks function to the fullest. (146 words)

    (13)1. 目前盗版的现象比较严重 2. 造成这种现象的原因及其危害3. ·我们应该怎么做Say No to Pirated Products.
        Piracy is a serious problem with which this country is confronted. In many places we see people peddling pirated books or disks.
        The following are the most critical factors that account for the problem. First, pirated products are much cheaper than copyrighted ones, so they are very attractive to people, especially youngsters, who are not financially well-off. Secondly, with highly developed technology, it is not difficult to manufacture pirated products.
        As a result, intellectual property rights are severely infringed upon. Honest producers will lose the motivation to develop new products. Meanwhile, pirated products are often of low quality, thus damaging the interest of buyers.
        In view of the seriousness of the problem, it is essential that laws and regulations be formulated and enforced to ban the manufacture and circulation of pirated products. Meanwhile, people should be educated to say no to these products. With these measures taken, we have reasons to believe that the problem can be solved in the near future. (162)

     

    (14)1.越来越多的人涌入大城市,有些问题随之产生。2.比较明显的大问题有......3.我对这种现象的想法。

    City Problems

    Nowadays, millions of migrant workers flock into cities in search of jobs and betterliving.However, with the sharp rise in the urban population, many problems arise in the development of

    cities.

    Firstly, cities become more and more crowded, putting much pressure upon transportation,housing, sanitation, education, employment and so on. City services and facilities have beenstrained to a breaking point. Secondly, a growing number of private cars emit huge amount of carbon dioxide, leaving the air mercilessly polluted. What is more, the city is also threatened byrising crime. Not a single day passes without the report of someone being robbed, kidnapped or murdered. Last but not least, city-dwellers are not only separated from the natural world but also

    isolated from each other, even not knowing the name of their next-door neighbor.

    All these problems have harmed the attractiveness of the city. Unless there is some improvement, more and more people may seek to live in the suburbs

     

    (15)1.私家轿车越来越多,有些问题随之产生。2.比较明显的大问题有......3.我对这种现象的看法.

    Car and Air Pollution

    Too many cars have created a lot of serious problems in our world. Besides congestion,accidents and fast fuel consumption, cars are responsible for a good part of air pollution in big cities. All the time, they are pumping huge amounts of waste gases into the atmosphere. These gases are very harmful, causing disease and even death. One possible solution is to design and develop clean cars and clean fuels. In Shanghai, some of the public buses begin to run on natural gas, which does not give off as much carbon dioxide as the petrol. But it may take decades for the new models of clean cars completely replace the traditional ones. Another solution is to develop  modern public transportation systems and restrict the use of private cars. If the price of petrol rises  constantly and the public vehicles are efficient and convenient enough, most people will not buy  private cars. And the total number of cars in big cities will reduce greatly. On the whole, the  elimination of air pollution needs the collective efforts from the government, the public and the  environmentalists.

     

     

     

    (16)1.友谊是人生永恒的主题。2.友谊到底意味着什么。3.友谊的重要性。

    What does friendship mean? There is no definite answer. An eternal theme in literature,friendship is also indispensable in daily life.

    Friendship is to our life what salt is to dasher. When you are happy, friendship is just like  adding flowers on the brocade; when you are sad, friendship is a dose of consolation; if you are in  trouble, friends will surround you and remove the barriers for you; if you have a hard nut to crack, you can turn to friends for help. We admire the great friendship between Marx and Engel, which  firmly combined them and pushed them forward on the road to exploring and fulfilling  Communism.

    Friendship isn't almighty, but no one can live happily without it.

     

     

    (17)1.有的人害怕压力。2.有的人认为压力并不是一件坏事。3.我的看法。

    On Stress

    With the fast are pace of modern life, more and more people are living under great pressure.

    Some people are afraid of pressure. They think that the stresses and strains of work deprive  them of joy and happiness. In their view, stress does harm to them both physically and mentally.That is why they prefer something less competitive and strenuous to something more demanding  and challenging.

    Others argue that stress isn't as bad as it often supposed to be. Unless it is overwhelming, a certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and stimulation. With out stress, you may  slack off and idle away your time. It gives purpose and meaning to an otherwise meaningless, dull  life. People under stress tend to bring their potential into full play and to realize their goals.

    In my opinion, we shouldn't escape from stress but to face it as it is. What we can do is to  adapt to the stress and to profit from it rather than to avoid it.

     

     

    (18)1.快餐在中国十分流行2.快餐受欢迎的原因3.我对快餐的看法

    Fast Food

    Fast food is becoming more and more popular in China, especially among children and  teenagers. Today, nothing is more representative of the fast pace of modern society than fast food.There are several reasons for its popularity. First, it is quick and convenient. Go into a fast food  restaurant, and your food will be ready in a minute. You can satisfy your hunger instantly. Precious  time won't be wasted in waiting-in-line to order or waiting at your table for your food to arrive. Second, its popularity is also attributed to the clean food, the excellent service and the comfortable  environment of the fast food restaurant.

    However, I think that fast food isn't healthy enough because it does not compose a balanced  diet and is low in nutrition. Doctors suggest that people should avoid eating too much fast food. Although home cooking is time-consuming and following washing-u p tiresome, it offers healthy  and delicious meals your body likes and needs. Fast food I s only a good choice when you are in a  hurry and we should turn to it only once in awhile.

  • (一)段首句

    1. 关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为……

    There are different opinions among people as to ____ .Some people suggest that ____.

    1. 俗话说(常言道)……,它是我们前辈的经历,但是,即使在今天,它在许多场合仍然

    适用。

    There is an old saying______. It"s the experience of our forefathers,however,it is correct in

    many cases even today.

    1. 现在,……,它们给我们的日常生活带来了许多危害。首先,……;其次,……。更为

    糟糕的是……。

    Today,____, which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, ____ Second,____. What

    makes things worse is that______.

    1. 现在,……很普遍,许多人喜欢……,因为……,另外(而且)……。

    Nowadays,it is common to ______. Many people like ______ because ______. Besides,______.

    1. 任何事物都是有两面性,……也不例外。它既有有利的一面,也有不利的一面。

    Everything has two sides and ______ is not an exception,it has both advantages and

    disadvantages.

    1. 关于……人们的观点各不相同,一些人认为(说)……,在他们看来,……

    People’s opinions about ______ vary from person to person. Some people say that ______.To

    them,_____.

    1. 人类正面临着一个严重的问题……,这个问题变得越来越严重。

    Man is now facing a big problem ______ which is becoming more and more serious.

    1. ……已成为人的关注的热门话题,特别是在年青人当中,将引发激烈的辩论。

    ______ has become a hot topic among people,especially among the young and heated debates

    are right on their way.

    1. ……在我们的日常生活中起着越来越重要的作用,它给我们带来了许多好处,但同时也

    引发一些严重的问题。

    ______ has been playing an increasingly important role in our day‐to‐day life.it has brought us a

    lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well.

    1. 根据图表/数字/统计数字/表格中的百分比/图表/条形图/成形图可以看出……。很显

    然……,但是为什么呢?

    According to the figure/number/statistics/percentages in the /chart/bar graph/line/graph,it can

    be seen that______ while. Obviously,______,but why?

    (二)中间段落句

    1. 相反,有一些人赞成……,他们相信……,而且,他们认为……。

    On the contrary,there are some people in favor of ___.At the same time,they say____.

    1. 但是,我认为这不是解决……的好方法,比如……。最糟糕的是……。

    But I don"t think it is a very good way to solve ____.For example,____.Worst of all,___.

    1. ……对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的,(也是)非常重要的。首先,……。而且……,

    最重要的是……

    ______is necessary and important to our country"s development and construction. First,

    ______.What"s more, _____.Most important of all,______.

    1. 有几个可供我们采纳的方法。首先,我们可以……。

    There are several measures for us to adopt. First, we can______

    1. 面临……,我们应该采取一系列行之有效的方法来……。一方面……,另一方面,

    Confronted with______,we should take a series of effective measures to______. For one thing,

    ______For another,______

    1. 早就应该拿出行动了。比如说……,另外……。所有这些方法肯定会……。

    It is high time that something was done about it. For example. _____.In addition. _____.All these

    measures will certainly______.

    1. 为什么……?第一个原因是……;第二个原因是……;第三个原因是……。总的来说,……

    的主要原因是由于……

    Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.The third is ______.For

    all this, the main cause of ______due to ______.

    1. 然而,正如任何事物都有好坏两个方面一样,……也有它的不利的一面,象……。

    However, just like everything has both its good and bad sides, ______also has its own

    disadvantages, such as ______.

    1. 尽管如此,我相信……更有利。

    Nonetheless, I believe that ______is more advantageous.

    1. 完全同意……这种观点(陈述),主要理由如下:

    I fully agree with the statement that ______ because______.

    (三)结尾句

    1. 至于我,在某种程度上我同意后面的观点,我认为……

    As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion to some extent. I think that ____.

    1. 总而言之,整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样,我们才能在将来……。

    In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ______.Only in this

    way can ______in the future.

    1. 但是,……和……都有它们各自的优势(好处)。例如,……,而……。然而,把这两者

    相比较,我更倾向于(喜欢)……

    But ______and ______have their own advantages. For example, _____, while_____. Comparing

    this with that, however, I prefer to______.

    1. 就我个人而言,我相信……,因此,我坚信美好的未来正等着我们。因为……

    Personally, I believe that_____. Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us

    because______.

    1. 随着社会的发展,……。因此,迫切需要……。如果每个人都愿为社会贡献自已的一份

    力量,这个社会将要变得越来越好。

    With the development of society, ______.So it"s urgent and necessary to ____.If every member is

    willing to contribute himself to the society, it will be better and better.

    1. 至于我(对我来说,就我而言),我认为……更合理。只有这样,我们才能……

    For my part, I think it reasonable to_____. Only in this way can you _____.

    1. 对我来说,我认为有必要……。原因如下:第一,……; 第二,……;最后……但同样

    重要的是……

    In my opinion, I think it necessary to____. The reasons are as follows. First _____.Second ______.

    Last but not least,______.

    1. 在总体上很难说……是好还是坏,因为它在很大程度上取决于……的形势。然而,就我

    个人而言,我发现……。

    It is difficult to say whether _____is good or not in general as it depends very much on the

    situation of______. However, from a personal point of view find______.

    1. 综上所述,我们可以清楚地得出结论……

    From what has been discussed above, we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that____.

    1. 如果我们不采取有效的方法,就可能控制不了这种趋势,就会出现一些意想不到的不良

    后果,所以,我们应该做的是……

    If we can not take useful means, we may not control this trend, and some undesirable result may

    come out unexpectedly, so what we should do is_____.

  • 饮料Drinks

    water 水

    mineral water 矿泉水

    distilled water 蒸馏水

    soda water 苏打水

    ice water 冰水

     

    coffee 咖啡

    iced coffee 冰咖啡

    white coffee  牛奶咖啡

    coffee with milk 牛奶咖啡

    black coffee 纯咖啡(不加牛奶的)

    instant coffee 速溶咖啡

    cocoa 可可

    moca/CafeMocha 摩卡

    coffee mate 奶精

     

    juice果汁

    orange juice 桔子原汁

    orangeade  桔子水

    orange squash 桔子水

    lemon juice 柠檬原汁

    lemonade 柠檬水

    tomato juice 番茄汁

    orange juice 橘子汁

    coconut milk 椰子汁

    asparagus juice 芦荟汁

    grapefruit juice 葡萄柚汁

    vegetable juice 蔬菜汁

    ginger ale 姜汁

    soya-bean milk 豆浆

    syrup of plum 酸梅汤

    fruit syrup 水果汁 ;果子露

     

    milk 牛奶

    whole milk 全脂奶

    milk curd 奶酪

    powdered milk 奶粉

    condensed milk 炼乳

    malted milk 麦乳精

    malted milk powder 麦乳精

    long-life milk 保久奶

     

    beverages 饮料

    Sprite 雪碧

    coke 可乐

    soda pop 汽水

    soda water 汽水

    soft drink 汽水(不含酒精的饮料)

    lemonade 柠檬水

    coco-cola(coke) 可口可乐

    fanta 芬达

    orangeade 桔子水

     

    tea 茶

    tea bag 茶包

    tea leaves 茶叶

    black tea 红茶

    green tea 绿茶

    lemon tea 柠檬茶

    jasmine tea 花茶

    jasmine tea 茉莉(香片)

    white goup tea 冬瓜茶

    chrysanthemum tea 菊花茶

    ginseng tea 人参茶

    Oolong tea 乌龙茶

    buttered tea 酥油茶

    Souchong 毛尖茶

    Longjing tea 龙井茶

    Biluochun green tea 碧螺春

    mixed herb tea 凉茶

    the first infusion of tea 头泡茶

    Gongfu tea 功夫茶

    sado tea ceremony 茶道

    strong(weak)tea 浓(淡)茶

    brick tea 砖茶

     

    wine 酒

    wine 葡萄酒(含酒精度数较低的)

    white wine 白葡萄酒

    red wine 红葡萄酒

    claret 波尔多红葡萄酒

    appetizer wine 开胃葡萄酒               

    sweet wine 、wins de liqueur 甜葡萄酒            

    dry red wine 干红葡萄酒            

    beer 啤酒

    draught beer 生啤酒

    draft beer 生啤酒               

    dark beer 黑啤酒

    beck's 贝克啤酒            

    cocktail 鸡尾酒

    margarita 鸡尾酒              

    fruit wine 果酒

    cider 苹果酒              

    champagne 香槟酒

    rum 罗木酒

    punch 五味酒

    gin 杜松子酒               

    dry gin 松子酒;金酒

    Geneva 杜松子酒               

    gin fizz 杜松子酒

    ginseng spirit 人参酒                

    Vermouth 味思美酒;苦艾酒

    run 朗姆酒              

    sherry 雪利酒

    vodka 伏特加               

    Wu China Pee 五加皮

    whisky 威士忌

    brandy 白兰地

    cognac 法国白兰地

    martini 马提尼酒

    ale 麦酒   

    liqueur 白酒,烧酒

    White spirit 白干;高梁酒

    Kaoliang spirit 高粱酒

    arrack 烧酒              

    sorghum spirit 二锅头                

    yellow wine 黄酒

    tribute wine 贡酒                

    Shaoxing wine 绍兴酒

    whooshing wine 绍兴酒

    Maotai 茅台酒               

    Wuliangye 五粮液

    Fenjiu、Fenjiu spirit 汾酒                

    Daqu 大曲                 

    special spirit、special liquor 特曲                 

    old cell 、old wine-wault 老窖   

    high-grade Shaoxing wine 花雕

    tincture of capsicum 花椒酒

    tonic wine 补酒

    old wine 、aged wine 陈酒

    rice wine 米酒

    sticky rice wine 糯米酒

    sake 日本米酒            

    bubbing wine 汽酒

    liquor;spirit 烈性酒

    grog、liquor、firewater、spirit 烈酒          

    sweet wine 甜酒

    dry sweet wine 不甜的酒

    fermented glutinous rice 酒酿               

    osmanthus-flavored wine 桂花酒

  •  医务人员名称

      Director of the hospital 院长

      physician 内科医师

      chief physician 主任医师

      associate chief physician 副主任医师

      attending doctor 主治医师

      resident doctor 住院医师

      intern doctor 实习医师

      general practitioner 全科医师

      specialist 专科医师

      head of the nursing department 护理部主任

      Head nurse 护士长

      Student nurse 实习护士

      E.N.T.doctor 耳鼻喉科医师

      Ophthalmologist 眼科医师

      Dentist 牙科医师

      Orthopedist 骨科医师

      Dermatologist 皮肤科医师

      urologist surgeon 泌尿外科医师

      neurosurgeon 神经外科医师

      plastic surgeon 矫形外科医师

      anaesthetist 麻醉科医师

      Doctor for tuberculosis 结核科医师

      Physiotherapist 理疗科

      Doctor for infectious diseases 传染病科

      Dietician 营养科医师

      Pediatrician 儿科医师

      Obstetrician 产科医师

      Midwife 助产师

      Gynecologist 妇科医师

      Radiologist 放射科医师

      Epidemiologist 流行病医师

      Pharmacist 药剂医师

      Assistant pharmacist 药剂医士

      Laboratory technician 化验员

      Assistant nurse 卫生员

      Cleaner 清洁员

      Controller 总务科长

      Registrar 挂号员

      Sanitation worker 消毒员

  • 19.【答案】  [B]

    【解析】  空格所在句是并列句,第1个分句意为“这个分值可能听起来很小”,第2个分句意为“要…减少的分值带来的影响,申请者的GMAT分数需要再多30分”,由but可知,前后两个分句存在语义上的转折关系,可见,整个句子的意思为“0.075分虽然很少,但造成了很大的影响”。空格所在的不定式短语作第2个分句的主语,表示想要达到的目的,显然,面试者想消除减少的分值带来的影响,四个选项中,只有[B] undo有“消除影响”的意思,故为答案。

    将[A] achieve和[C] maintain代入后,表示“要达到/维持减少的分值带来的影响”,语义逻辑前后矛盾,故可排除;将[D] disregard代入后,表示“不理会减少的分值带来的影响”,不合文意,故可排除。

    20.【答案】  [C]

    【解析】  空格所在的部分是than引导的定语从句,修饰points,此处的than相当于than what,空格所在部分意为“但是要想消除减少的分值带来的影响,申请者的GMAT分数要比原本…的分数再多30分”。显然,减少的0.075分要靠GMAT分数的增加来弥补,即比原本需要的分数增加30分,故[C] necessary正确。

    [A] promising和[D] helpful代入后,分别表示“要比原本有希望的分数再多30分”和“要比原本有用的分数再多30分”,不符合语义逻辑,故可排除;将[B] possible代入后,表示“要比原本能取得的分数再多30分”,考试具有不确定性,分数的取得不能确定,故可排除。

    Section ⅡReading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

    Text 1

    【全文精译】

    ①2006年,根据《穿普拉达的女王》改编的电影中,由梅里尔·斯特里普扮演的米兰达·普瑞斯特利责备她不起眼的助理,因为助理认为高级时装不会对她产生影响。②普瑞斯特利解释了这个助理毛衣的深蓝色这些年来是如何从时装秀流行到百货商店再到廉价商品处理区的,而这个穷女孩多半就是在那里发现的这件衣服。

    ①时尚行业的这种自上而下的观念已经太过时了,或者与《过度着装》中描写的那个狂热的世界格格不入,《过度着装》这本书描写了伊丽莎白·克莱因3年来对“快时尚”的谴责。②在过去的大约10年里,科技的进步已经使像Zara、H&M和Uniqlo这样的大众市场品牌对潮流趋势反应更快,对需求预测得更准。③更快的周转意味着更少的库存浪费,更频繁的新品发布以及更高的利润。④那些品牌促使有时尚意识的消费者将服装看成是穿完就可以丢弃的物品——意味着只洗一两水,尽管它们没有这样宣传——并且每隔几周就更新他们的全部衣物。⑤克莱因认为,这些品牌通过以特别低的价格销售潮流服装操纵了时尚周期,动摇了这个长久以来适应了季节周期的产业。

    ①当然,这场变革的受害者不仅限于设计师。②H&M要想在它全球所有的2300多家商店里以5.95美元的价格销售针织迷你裙的话,就必须依赖廉价的海外劳动力,大量订购消耗自然资源的原材料和使用大量的有害化学物质。

    ①《过度着装》是时尚界对像迈克尔·波伦的《杂食者的困境》这样为消费者维权的畅销书的回应。②克莱因说:“像快餐一样,批量生产的服装满足了饥渴和需求,然而却不持久,而且是一种浪费。”③她发现,美国人每年大约购买200亿件服装——平均每人大约64件——无论他们捐赠了多少出去,这种过度消费会导致浪费。

    ①《过度着装》接近结尾处,克莱因介绍了她自己心目中的理想人物,一位来自布鲁克林区、名叫萨拉·凯特·博蒙的妇女,她自从2008年以来一直动手为自己做衣服——并且做得非常漂亮。②但是,正如克莱因是第一个指出的那样,博蒙花费了几十年的时间才使自己技术熟练;她的范例无法一蹴而就。

     ①尽管几家快时尚公司努力控制其对劳动力和环境的影响——包括使用“环保意识系列时装生产线”的H&M——克莱因认为,只有消费者才可以产生持久的改变。②她展示了与许多可持续发展倡导者所共有的理想主义,不管这种理想主义是食品行业的还是能源行业的。③虚荣是常态;当人们负担不起不可持续购物时,他们才会开始进行可持续购物。

    【答案精解】

    21.【答案】[B]

    【解析】  细节辨识题。根据题干中的Priestly criticizes her assistant定位到第1段第1句。该句中for imagining...表示原因,即普瑞斯特利因为助理认为自己不受高级时装的影响而批评了她。[B]中的insensitivity对应原文中的imagining that...,故为答案。第2句中的the bargain bin是指“廉价商品处理区”,与bargaining skill所指不同,故可排除[A];[C]与第1句中的high fashion doesn’t affect her直接相反,故可排除;第1句中的imagining表示“认为;料想”,与[D]中的imagination(想象力)不同,故可排除。

    22.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  细节辨识题。根据题干中的massmarket labels,consumers定位到第2段第4句。该句中的Those labels指代第2句中的massmarket labels。该句指出,这些大众市场品牌使有时尚意识的消费者把服装看做是穿完就可以丢弃的物品,并且使他们每隔几个周就更新自己的全部衣物。[D]中的shop for their garments对应原文中的renew their wardrobe;more frequently对应原文中的every few weeks,故为答案。第4句指出,这些大众市场品牌使消费者将服装看做是穿完就可以丢弃的物品,很明显能产生浪费,[A]与此相反,故可排除;消费者每隔几个周就更新自己的全部衣物表明他们深受时尚的影响,[B]与此相反,故可排除;第4句中的they don’t advertise that中的they指的是Those labels;that指的是“消费者将服装看做是穿完就可以丢弃的物品”,[C]是根据advertise设置的干扰,故可排除。

    23.【答案】[A]

    【解析】  语义理解题。根据题干可直接定位到第2段第1句。该句中of fast fashion修饰indictment,因此理解克莱因对fast fashion的态度便可弄清indictment的意思。该段第2、3句分别介绍了快时尚形成的原因和快时尚对商家的有利影响。但第4、5句则分别指出了快时尚对消费者和时尚业的不利影响:使消费者将服装看做是穿完就可以丢弃的物品,并且使他们经常更新自己的全部衣物;动摇了以季节为周期的时尚业。第3段继续指出快时尚对设计者、劳动者和购买者的不利影响。结合这两段内容可推断,克莱因反对fast fashion,[A]与这一语境最为贴切,故为答案。其他三个选项在原文中找不到依据,故可排除。

    24.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干可直接定位到最后一段。该段第1句指出只有靠消费者才能给时尚业带来改变,即消除时尚业的消极影响,使其向可持续发展的方向变化。第3句中分号后的句子与此对应,该分句指出,当人们负担不起不可持续购物时,他们才会开始进行可持续购物,由此可推断,让人们负担不起不可持续购物是促使人们进行可持续购物的重要因素,[D]中的Pricing(定价)是让人们无法负担的方法之一,故为答案。第3句中只是提到“虚荣是常态”,表明虚荣心是一种普遍现象,并不是只有理想主义者才有虚荣心,[A]将原文范围缩小,故可排除;第1句中Though引导的让步状语从句表明,一些快时尚公司已经开始努力向可持续发展转变,[B]过于绝对,故可排除;[C]在文中没有提及,故可排除。

    25.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  主旨大意题。文章第1段通过一部电影中的一个情节引入话题。第2~4段讲到文章的主题“快时尚”,并且提到了它的不利影响:造成浪费,破坏时尚周期,动摇时尚产业;对设计者影响不利;使快时尚公司过度依赖海外劳动力、过度使用自然资源,使用大量有害的化学物质。第5、6段针对快时尚的不良影响提出可以采取的解决方法。[C]最能概括本文的主题,故为答案。第2段第5句中的dirtcheap prices表明快时尚是低价的,[A]与此相反;highfashion只在第1段第1句中出现,并不能概括全文,故可排除[B];文中并没有提到大众市场的秘密,所以更谈不上揭露,故可排除[D]。

    Text 2【全文精译】

    ①老话说得好,一半的广告预算都打了水漂——问题在于没人知道是哪一半。②在互联网时代,被浪费的这一部分至少在理论上可被大幅压缩。③通过查看人们在线搜索、点击和表达的内容,公司可以针对那些最有可能购买它们产品的用户投放“行为”广告。

    在过去的几个星期里,一场争论已经显示了这些精细信息对广告商的价值:广告商假定用户乐意被他们追踪,并且乐意接受他们所投放的行为广告,这样合理吗?或者说,广告商应该得到用户明确的许可吗?

    ①2010年12月,美国联邦贸易委员会建议在浏览器中加入“禁止追踪”选项,通过启用这一功能,用户可以告知广告商他们不希望自己的在线行为被追踪。②微软的IE浏览器及苹果的Safari(游猎)浏览器都有“禁止跟踪”选项;今年,谷歌也将在Chrome(铬黄)浏览器中加入这一功能。③2月份,联邦贸易委员会和数字广告联盟已经达成了一致意见:互联网浏览器行业将着手处理用户提出的“禁止追踪”请求。

    5月31日,微软率先作出了反应:微软称在即将与Windows 8系统一起推出的IE 10浏览器中,“禁止追踪”将是默认设置。

    ①广告商一阵恐慌。②大多数用户都不会修改默认选项,这是人的本性使然。③现在几乎没有人会开启“禁止追踪”功能,但是如果默认就是“禁止追踪”的话,追踪功能将保持关闭状态。④美国国家广告商联合会是数字广告联盟下属的一个组织,其主席鲍勃·利奥狄斯说,如果广告行业无法收集用户的偏好信息,那么这对用户来说将更为不利。⑤他说用户收到的广告并不会减少。⑥“他们收到的广告将更没有意义,更缺少针对性。”

    ①广告商们会对此作出何种反应仍不清楚。②收到用户的“禁止追踪”信号无法迫使任何一家广告商停止追踪用户的在线行为,尽管有些公司已经承诺不再追踪。③由于无法分辨有的用户是真的反对行为广告还是因为他们只是没有修改微软浏览器的默认设置,一些公司可能会忽略“禁止追踪”信号,继续追踪用户的在线行为。

    ①此外,为何单单微软会采取这样的措施也不清楚。②毕竟,微软自身也有广告业务,微软称其广告业务将遵从“禁止追踪”请求,不过具体实施方案仍在研究当中。③如果微软想要激怒几乎所有收入都来自广告业务的谷歌的话,那么此举并不是一个直接的方法:没人能保证将“禁止追踪”作为默认设置会成为行业规范。④“禁止追踪”似乎并不是Windows 8很明显的一大卖点——尽管之前基于这一点,微软的其他一些产品比谷歌对应的产品好得多。⑤微软首席隐私官布伦登·林奇在博客中写道:“我们认为用户应该有更大的话语权。” ⑥真的是这么简单吗?

    【答案精解】

    26.【答案】[B]

    【解析】  细节辨识题。根据题干可直接定位到第1段。该段第2句指出,在互联网时代,广告商能够减少广告费用的浪费。第3句解释了减少浪费的方式,即通过查看人们搜索、点击和表达的内容,公司可以向那些最有可能购买产品的人投放“行为”广告。由此可知“行为”广告能够帮助广告商减少广告费用的浪费。[B]是对文中this fraction can be much reduced的同义转述,故为答案。文中并没有提到广告商之间的竞争问题,故可排除[A];“行为”广告针对的是最有可能购买产品的人,与消费者的抱怨无关,也与在线服务无关,故可排除[C]和[D]。

    27.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  语义理解题。根据题干可直接定位到第3段最后一句。要理解the industry的所指,就应该掌握整段话的语境。第1句中FTC提议应该在互联网浏览器中添加“禁止追踪”选项;第2句紧接着指出微软、苹果和谷歌的做法:微软和苹果在浏览器中添加了“禁止追踪”选项;谷歌今年打算添加。由此可知本段话主要与互联网浏览器的开发者提供“禁止追踪”选项有关,故答案为[D]。developers对应原文中的Microsoft,Apple和Google。 [A]虽然也是本文讨论的重点,但是第3段中并没有提及其相关的信息,故可排除;[B]和[C]两项在第3段中没有提及。

    28.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干中的Bob Liodice定位到第5段第4~6句。这3句指出,将“禁止追踪”设为默认选项会使费者面临的情况更糟;他们接收的广告将更没有意义,更缺少针对性。[C]是根据这3句作出的推断,故为答案。文中并没有提到广告商发送给消费者的“行为”广告是垃圾广告,而且第5句明确指出用户收到的广告并不会减少,故可排除[A];第4~6句中提到,将“禁止追踪”设为默认值会使广告更没有意义,更缺少针对性,这无疑会对整个广告行业造成影响,[B]与此相反,故可排除;第2句中提到因为人类的本性是“保持原样”,所以他们会坚持使用默认设置,[D]混淆了原文之间的关系,故可排除。

    29.【答案】[A]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干可直接定位到第6段。根据前文可知,“禁止追踪”想要达到的效果是阻止广告商追踪消费者的信息。第2句指出,得到用户的“禁止追踪”信号并不能强迫广告商停止继续追踪;第3句指出,因为无法分辨用户是真的反对“行为”广告还是因为他们只是没有修改微软浏览器的默认设置,所以一些广告商可能会忽视“禁止追踪”信号,并且继续追踪信息。由这2句可知,“禁止追踪”并不能使广告商停止追踪用户的信息,言外之意是它没有达到预期的目的,故答案为[A]。[B]是根据第2句中although引导的让步状语从句设置的干扰项,通过该句的主句和第3句的主句可知,广告商并不会停止追踪用户的信息,故可排除;第6段主要是从广告商的角度说明他们对“禁止追踪”的态度,与消费者无关,故可排除[C];由第1段可知,“行为”广告是广告商主动提供的,并且广告商提供“行为”广告也不是本段的内容,故可排除[D]。

    30.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  观点态度题。根据题干中的Brendon Lynch定位到最后一段第5句。该句中布伦登·林奇指出其公司将“禁止追踪”设为默认选项的原因是他们认为消费者应该有更多的话语权。最后一句以一个问句对他的话表示了质疑:微软将“禁止追踪”设为默认选项真的只是因为他们认为消费者应该有更多的话语权吗?言外之意是可能还有其他原因。由此可推断作者对布伦登·林奇的话表示怀疑,故答案为[D]。其他三个选项在原文中找不到依据。

    Text 3【全文精译】

    ①直到几十年前,我们对于未来的畅想大多是乐观积极而又热情洋溢的,尽管绝非整齐划一。②科技将会消除人类的所有弊病,并给所有人带来满是成就和机遇的生活。

    ①随着我们对所面临的一系列威胁——从小行星撞击到流感再到气候变化——的认识不断加深,如今乌托邦已经过时。②你甚至可能会不禁认为人类几乎没有可展望的未来了。

    ①但是这种沮丧是不该有的。②化石记录显示很多物种已经持续存在了数百万年——那么为什么我们不能呢?③更广泛地审视人类在宇宙中的位置,你就会清晰地发现,我们即使不能存活数十万年,也极有可能存活数万年(见《公元100000年:生活在遥远的未来》)。④如若在国际自然保护联盟濒危物种“红色名录”里查阅一下智人,你将会读到:“列为无危物种,因为该物种分布非常广泛、适应力很强、目前正在增多而且不存在致使其族群数量整体下降的重大威胁。”

    ①那么我们遥远的未来会是怎样的呢?②越来越多的研究者和机构正在认真思考这一问题。③譬如,总部设在旧金山的今日永存基金会已经开设了一个论坛,思想家和科学家应邀预测他们的思想在很长的期限内可能产生的影响。④其最重要的研究项目是一个旨在数千年以后还能标记时间的机械钟,它被深埋在得克萨斯州的一座山里。

    ①可能是故意的,或许思考这么漫长的期限的未来要比思考更近的未来要容易得多。②当今科技可能发生的演变及其产生的社会后果极其复杂,或许最好将其留给科幻小说家和未来学家,让他们去探索我们能够想象的诸多可能性。③这就是为什么我们会发行《弧》——一本致力于探讨不远的将来的新出版物。

    ①但是更长远地来看,我们能够相当自信地说出来的事情多得令人惊讶。②通常来说,过去拥有开启未来的钥匙:我们现在已经发现足够多塑造这个星球和我们这个物种历史的长期模式,能够对我们后代的生存状况作出基于证据的预测。

    ①这种长远的观点使对我们的前景持有的消极看法看起来更像是昙花一现。②诚然,未来并非总是美好的:虽然我们这一物种可能茁壮成长,但大量物种或许并非如此。③但是如今我们有足够的知识能减少危及早期人类生存的诸多风险,并且改善未来人类的命运。

    【答案精解】

    31.【答案】[B]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干中的Our vision定位到第1段。该段第1句中的Up until a few decades ago与题干中的used to对应。该句指出直到几十年前,我们对未来的畅想大多是积极乐观的。第2句解释了原因:人们相信科技会消除人类所有的弊病,并给所有人带来满是成就和机遇的生活。由此可知过去人们对将来的积极乐观的态度是因为相信科技,[B]中的our faith 是根据文中的cure all the ills of humanity...作出的推断,故为答案。第2句中的现在分词短语leading to...表明是科技带给人们这样的生活,而不是人们希望有这样的生活,[A]与此不一致;文中并没有提到过去人们对未来的畅想与潜在的危险之间的关系,也并没有提到平等的机会,故可排除[C]和[D]。

    32.【答案】[A]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干中的IUCN,“Red List”定位到第3段第4句。该句指出国际自然保护联盟的“红色名录”将智人列为无危物种(Least Concern),as引导的原因状语从句解释了原因:这个物种分布非常广泛、适应力很强、目前正在增多而且不存在致使其族群数量整体下降的重大威胁。也就是说智人是一个持续发展的物种,[A]是根据very widely distributed, adaptable...作出的推断,故为答案。第4句中的threatened species是指“红色名录”中记录的受到威胁的物种,而不是说智人对环境有威胁,故可排除[B];文中并没有提到智人是世界的主导力量,故可排除[C];第1句指出对未来持有悲观态度是不应该的,[D]将原文信息混淆,故可排除。

    33.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干可直接定位到第5段。该段第1句指出,思考更遥远的未来比思考更近的未来更容易一些;第2句解释了原因:当今科技可能发生的演变及其产生的社会后果极其复杂,所以最好让科幻小说家和未来学家去探索我们能够想象的诸多可能性。通过这2句话可知,思考更近的未来更难一些,[D]与第1句对应,故为答案。第3句指出,《弧》致力于研究更近的未来,但并不是限制了对未来的研究范围,故可排除[A];第2句指出当今的科技可能发生的演变及其产生的社会后果极其复杂,但并没有指出科技能提供社会问题的解决办法,故可排除[B];第2句中提到让科幻小说家和未来学家去探索我们能够想象的诸多可能性,但这并不代表人们对科幻小说的兴趣在增加,故可排除[C]。

    34.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据出题顺序以及the future of mankind定位到第6段。该段第1句表明,我们能够相当自信地说出来的事情多得令人惊讶。第2句解释了原因:过去拥有开启未来的钥匙。冒号后的内容对主句进行了解释,即我们现在已经掌握了足够多塑造这个星球和我们这个物种历史的长期模式,这使我们能对后代的生存状况作出基于证据的预测。也就是说要预测后代的生存状况,需要掌握这个星球和我们这个物种的历史的长期模式。[C]是根据identified enough of the longterm patterns shaping the history...作出的推断,故为答案。 [A]在文中没有提及;文中并没有提及乐观的世界观与人类未来的关系,故可排除[B];第2句中提到塑造这个星球和我们这个物种历史的长期模式,但并没有提到遏制重塑历史的野心,故可排除[D]。

    35.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  主旨大意题。文章第1段指出过去人们对未来持有积极乐观的心态;第2段指出现在人们对未来持有消极悲观的心态;第3段对第2段进行了否定,再次表示人们应该对未来持有积极乐观的心态,并解释了理由;第4、5段主要说明为了弄清人类遥远的未来所作出的努力;第6、7段指出人类同样可以思考更近的未来,并且在结尾处指出如今我们有足够的知识能够减少危及早期人类生存的诸多风险,并且改善未来人类的命运,这同样是对未来持有积极乐观的态度,[C]最能概括全文,故为答案。文中提到人们对未来有两种态度:积极乐观的和消极悲观的,并不是不确定的,故可排除[A];文中并没有提到人类物种的进化这个话题,故可排除[B];科学和技术只是文章的细节,不能概括全文,故可排除。

    Text 4【全文精译】

    ①周一,最高法院以5:3的投票结果推翻了亚利桑那州移民法的多数条款——这是奥巴马政府的一场小小的政策胜利。②但在更为重要的宪法问题上,美国政府试图打破联邦政府和各州之间的权力平衡的努力以8∶0的投票结果宣告失败。

    ①在亚利桑那州与美国政府的对抗中,亚利桑那州使州、地方警察有权执行联邦移民法的计划非常有争议,因此4项有争议的条款中有3项都被大多数法官推翻了。②宪法的原则是,只有华盛顿政府拥有“制定一致适用的归化条例”的权力,且各州法律不能凌驾于联邦法律之上,这些原则都是无可非议的。③亚利桑那州曾试图形成与现行联邦政策并驾齐驱的州政策。

    ①安东尼·肯尼迪法官同首席法官约翰·罗伯茨和法院的自由主义者一起作出了裁决:亚利桑那州飞得离联邦政府这颗太阳太近了。②关于被推翻的条款,大多数法官认为国会故意“占领这一领域”,因此亚利桑那州这样做便侵犯了联邦的特权。

    ①然而,法官们称准许亚利桑那州警察核查涉嫌非法移民的人的合法身份。②这是因为国会一直想让联邦与各州联合执行移民法,且明确鼓励各州官员与联邦同事分享信息并进行合作。

    ①3位持反对意见的法官中的2位——塞缪尔·阿利托和克拉伦斯·托马斯——对宪法的这一逻辑表示赞同,却反对亚利桑那州的规定与联邦法规冲突的观点。②仅有的主要反对声来自法官安东宁·斯卡利亚,他为能追溯到《客籍法和惩治叛乱法案》的州特权提供了更加强有力的辩护。

    ①以8∶0反对奥巴马总统的结果源于塞缪尔·阿利托法官在其反对陈述中所描述的“对联邦行政权力令人震惊的维护”。②白宫辩称,即使亚利桑那州的法律严格遵守联邦法规,其法律仍与联邦执法优先权相冲突。③实际上,白宫声称它可以使任何其他它所反对的合法州法律作废。

     ①一些权力的确为联邦政府所特有,其中包括对公民权和边界的控制权。②但是,如果国会想要阻止各州使用它们自己的资源来核查移民身份的话,它可以那么做。③但它却从来没有这样做过。④美国政府本质上是在坚称,因为它并不想实现国会在移民法方面的愿望,所以哪一个州也不应该被准许那样做。⑤所有法官都以正当理由否决了这一显而易见的主张。

    【答案精解】

    36.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干中的Three provisions, overturned定位到第2段。该段第1句中不定式短语to have state and local police...作后置定语,修饰plan,由此可知亚利桑那州的计划是使州和地方警察执行联邦移民法,这一计划的3项条款被否决。第2句解释了最高法院否决的原因:只有华盛顿政府有权“制定一致适用的归化条例”,而且联邦法律先于州法律。由此可知亚利桑那州提出的3项条款被否决是因为它们凌驾于联邦法律之上,[C]是根据第2句作出的推断,故为答案。文中只是提到亚利桑那州的计划是使州和地方警察执行联邦移民法,但并没有提到它剥夺了联邦政府警察的权力,故可排除[A];亚利桑那州的计划涉及州与联邦之间的关系,而不是州与州之间的关系,故可排除[B];文中并没有提到亚利桑那州的计划违背了州政策,故可排除[D]。

    37.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  细节辨识题。根据题干可直接定位到第4段。该段第1句指出最高法院的法官认为亚利桑那州警察将被允许核查涉嫌非法移民的人的合法身份。第2句解释了原因:国会一直希望联邦政府和各州联合执行移民法,并且明确鼓励各州官员与联邦同事分享信息并进行合作。由此可知各州是有权执行移民法的,故答案为[C]。第4段中并没有提到移民者的信息等相关内容,故可排除[A];各州有权执行移民法并不表示他们从联邦移民法中独立出来,故可排除[B];第2句提到了国会的希望,但并没有说它干预了移民法的执行,故可排除[D]。

    38.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  细节辨识题。根据题干可直接定位到第5段。该段主要与3位支持亚利桑那州的法律条款的法官的态度有关。其中第2句中who引导的定语从句表明Antonin Scalia为州特权提供了更有力的辩护。现在分词短语going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts修饰state privileges,由此可知the Alien and Sedition Acts也是支持州特权的,[D]中的stood in favor of the states与原文中的more robust defense of state privileges对应,故为答案。其他三个选项通过现在分词短语going back to...所修饰的state privileges便可排除。

    39.【答案】[A]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干中The White House, claims及出题顺序定位到第6段。该段分析了奥巴马政府的努力被否决的原因,其中由第1句可知,奥巴马政府对联邦行政权力极度维护。第2句指出白宫认为亚利桑那州的移民法与它的执行优先权相冲突。第3句进一步指出,白宫声称它可以使任何其他它所反对的合法州法律作废。由此可推断,白宫认为它的执行权高于州的执行权,如果州违背了这一点,那么它就有权使其法律作废。[A]是根据原文作出的推断,故为答案。第6段第1句和第3句都表明联邦政府凌驾于州政府之上,但并没有提到联邦政府的执行权依赖于各州的支持,故可排除[B];文中没有提到联邦政府的执行权是由联邦法令确立的,故可排除[C];全文都与白宫反对亚利桑那州的法律有关,故可排除[D]。

    40.【答案】[D]

    【解析】  推理判断题。根据题干可直接定位到最后一段。该段第1句and后的分句中的them指代Some powers,由该分句可知,对公民权和边界的管辖权是联邦政府所特有的,而citizenship与the borders则与移民问题有关,故答案为[D]。The Administration与the federal government对应;immigration issues与citizenship and the borders对应。第1句and后的分句明确指出对公民权和边界的管辖权是联邦政府的特权,而不是国会的,故可排除[A];文中只是提到最高法院否决了奥巴马政府的一项努力,但并不是要核查政府的权力,故可排除[B];[C]在文中没有提到。

     

    Part B

    Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 4145, choose the most suitable one from the list AG to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)(10 points)

    【全文精译】

    ①社会学正蓬勃发展。②自2005年以来,全世界各行各业的专业社会学家接近50万,在学术界内外工作。③根据《2010年世界社会学报告》,自2000年以来,全球社会学专业的学生数量每年增加大约11%。

    ①然而,这个庞大的人力资源并没有为如今的全球性挑战做出足够的贡献,包括气候变化、安全、可持续发展和健康。(41)②这些问题均是由人类行为引起的:都需要行为变化和社会创新,以及技术发展。③例如,遏止气候变化就像开发清洁能源一样,需要改变消费模式和提高税收承担能力。[E]④人类有必要的农业技术工具消除饥饿,从转基因农作物到人工肥料。⑤现在的问题也是社会性的:食物、财富和富裕的统筹与分配。

    (42)①尽管存在这些因素,很多社会学家似乎并不愿意解决这样的问题。②而在欧洲,一项提议让一些社会学家大为恼火,这项提议要终止用于社会学研究的特定基金类别,将其整合到可持续发展的跨学科论题中。[F]③这是一件令人惋惜的事——社会学界应该抓住机会,提升其在现实世界中的影响力。④套用伟大社会学家约瑟夫· 顺彼得的一句话:没有创造性的毁灭就没有彻底的革新。

    如今,社会学主要关注种种违纪问题和内部学术辩论,而很少关注受外界影响的论题。

    ①分析显示,包含关键词“环境变化”或“气候变化”的论文数量自2004年以来迅速增加。(43)②但是,数量还是很小:2010年,全球发表的每100000篇社会学论文中就有大约1600篇包含其中的一个关键词。[B]

    ①当社会学家真的要解决实际问题时,他们的范围通常局限于当地:例如,比利时主要对比利时的贫困造成的影响感兴趣。②而社会学界的工作是否对整体的知识积累做出很多贡献是令人质疑的。

    ①问题未必在于可用基金的额度。(44)②20世纪90年代后期,用于社会学和人类学的国家支出占所有研究与发展基金的比例——包括政府、高等教育、非营利性组织和企业——在大约4%到25%之间浮动;在大多数欧洲国家,这个比例大约为15%。[G]③只要研究方向正确,这个额度是足够的。④在今天这种经济形势下,抱怨资金缺乏的社会学家不应该期望更多。

    ①秘诀在于更好地管理这些基金。②欧盟框架基金计划长期以来一直有一项专门面向社会学家的基金类别。③今年,有人提议应该改变一下体制:新计划地平线2020将于2014年通过,该计划将不存在这个类别。④这引起了社会学家的反对。⑤但是,其目的不是忽视社会学。确切地说,恰恰相反。(45)⑥这个想法在于迫使社会学家将自己的工作与其他类别的研究整合成一体,包括健康和人口变化,食品安全,海洋研究和生物经济,清洁、高效的能源以及包容、创新和安全的社会。[C]⑦这应该会促进更多的协作努力,有助于形成旨在直接解决全球性问题的计划。

    【答案精解】

    41.【答案】[E]

    【解析】  上下文逻辑衔接+指代原则+词汇复现。空格位于第2段段中,应联系空格前后内容作答。空格前面指出,庞大的社会学人力资源并未对当今的全球性挑战做出足够的贡献,并列举了一些全球性问题:气候变化、安全、可持续发展与健康;空格后面指出,人类有必要的农业技术工具消除饥饿。由此可以推测,空格处可能既会提到这些全球性问题,又涉及解决方法,符合要求的有[B]和[E],但[B]给出的The solution是改变学术界的心态,并指出全球性问题应该得到科学家更多的关注,该项并未涉及具体的解决方法,故可排除。[E]中的These issues指代空格前提到的社会问题;climate change属于原词复现;该项第2句列举了遏止气候变化的方法,与空格后人类解决饥饿问题的方法形成语义共现,故答案为[E]。

    42.【答案】[F]

    【解析】  上下文逻辑衔接+指代原则。空格位于第3段段首,应起到承上启下的作用。空格前面指出,这些问题也属于社会问题:食物、财富和富裕的统筹与分配;空格后面指出,这是一件令人遗憾的事,社会学界应该抓住机会提升其在现实世界中的影响力,并引用某社会学家的话表明社会学界应该采取行动。由此可以推测,空格处可能涉及解决上述的社会问题,并具体阐述那件令人遗憾的事是什么,[F]第1句让步(Despite)指出,尽管存在上述的这些因素,但社会学家并不愿解决这样的问题,these factors指代上段末句提到的社会问题,很好地承接了上文;第2句以欧洲的一些社会学家为例,指出一项要终止专门用于社会学研究的基金使他们大为恼火,这种不愿解决问题而只顾研究的做法是一件令人遗憾的事,即空格后提到的a shame,故答案为[F]。

    43.【答案】[B]

    【解析】  上下文逻辑衔接+原词复现。空格位于第5段段末。空格前面指出,包含关键词“环境变化”或“气候变化”的论文数量自2004年以来迅速增加,由此可以推测,空格处可能还会涉及论文数量的相关内容,符合要求的只有[B]。该项中的However表明其与上文存在语义上的转折关系,该项指出这个数量还很小,are still small与空格前的increased rapidly形成了转折,符合上下文的逻辑关系,此外,the numbers,papers和keywords属于原词复现,故答案为[B]。

    44.【答案】[G]

    【解析】  上下文逻辑衔接+指代原则。空格位于倒数第2段段中,应结合空格前后的内容寻找线索。空格前面提到,问题未必是可用基金的额度;空格后面指出,这是一个足够的额度,空格前后均涉及基金问题,由此可以推测,空格处还会提到与基金相关的内容,符合要求的只有[G]。该项前半部分的主干为national spending…varied from 4% to 25%,说明国家支出占所有研究与发展基金的比例的浮动范围,from 4% to 25%和15%是一个足够的额度(adequate amount),与下文形成语义上的衔接,故答案为[G]。

    45.【答案】[C]

    【解析】  上下文逻辑衔接+语义复现。空格位于最后一段段中。空格前面指出,欧盟框架基金计划取消了专门面向社会学家的基金类别,此举的目的不是忽视社会学,而是恰恰相反(complete opposite),由此可以推测,空格处可能会涉及取消这项基金类别的真正目的,并且这一目的应带有积极性,[C]提到了其真正目的是为了迫使社会学家将自己的工作与其他类别的研究整合成一体,并列举了一些问题,该项中的integrate与空格后的collaborative形成语义复现,列举的这些问题与空格后的global problems属于上下义复现,故答案为[C]。

     

    Part C

    Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

    【答案精解】

    46.Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

    【标准译文】然而,看到那些无家可归的人所创建的花园的照片时,我们不禁会发现这一系列花园即使风格各异,揭示的却是几种其他的根本需求,不限于美饰与表达的范畴。

    【本题考点】时间状语从句+it作形式主语+指代。

    【翻译难点】句子主干结构为it strikes one。句首的when引导时间状语从句。it是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的主语从句。for all意为“尽管”,表让步。beyond后面的that指代前面的urge。

    1. A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.

    【标准译文】一处安恬的憩园,无论形式繁简、构造如何,都很明显是一种人性的需求,与此相反,一个栖身之所则是动物性明显的需求

    【本题考点】让步状语从句+定语从句+短语辨义。

    【翻译难点】句子主干结构为A sacred place of peace…is a distinctly human need。however引导让步状语从句,作插入语。which引导非限制性定语从句修饰shelter。

    1. The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such.

    【标准译文】无家可归者的花园实际上是无家的花园,将形式引入了一个无形或无法辨认形式的都市环境。

    【本题考点】定语从句+指代+单词辨义。

    【翻译难点】句子主干结构为The gardens…introduce form into an urban environment。which引导定语从句修饰The gardens of the homeless。where引导定语从句修饰urban environment。it指代form。

    1. most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic.

    【标准译文】我们中的大多数人会感到精神不振,并通常把它归咎于某种心理或神经上的失调;直到有一天我们置身花园,却往往会发现郁闷之感奇迹般地消失殆尽。

    【本题考点】定语从句+时间状语从句+并列结构。

    【翻译难点】①句子主干结构为most of us give into a demoralization of spirit。②which引导定语从句修饰spirit。③until引导时间状语从句,包含由and连接的两个并列成分。

    1. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.

    【标准译文】正是这或明或暗的对自然界的指示使这些人工合成的建筑物完全够得上“花园”之称,尽管得稍稍“解放”这个词的语义才能这么说。

    【本题考点】强调句型+让步状语从句。

    【翻译难点】①句子主干是It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies。②本句是It is…that…形式的强调句型,强调主语this implicit or explicit reference to nature,谓语动词是justifies。③though引导让步状语从句。④to describe…是不定式短语表目的。

  • Section IUse of English

    Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

     

    People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decisionmakers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. 4, he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.

    To 8 this idea, he turned to the universityadmissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11.

    He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardised exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

    Dr Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20.

    1. [A] grants[B] submits[C] transmits[D] delivers
    2. [A] minor[B] external[C] crucial[D] objective
    3. [A] issue[B] vision[C] picture[D] moment
    4. [A] Above all[B] On average[C] In principle[D] For example
    5. [A] fond[B] fearful[C] capable[D] thoughtless
    6. [A] in[B] for[C] to[D] on
    7. [A] if[B] until[C] though[D] unless
    8. [A] test[B] emphasize[C] share[D] promote
    9. [A] decision[B] quality[C] status[D] success
    10. [A] found[B] studied[C] chosen[D] identified
    11. [A] otherwise[B] defensible[C] replaceable[D] exceptional
    12. [A] inspired[B] expressed[C] conducted[D] secured
    13. [A] assigned[B] rated[C] matched[D] arranged
    14. [A] put[B] got[C] took[D] gave
    15. [A] instead[B] then[C] ever[D] rather
    16. [A] selected[B] passed[C] marked[D] introduced
    17. [A] below[B] after[C] above[D] before
    18. [A] jump[B] float[C] fluctuate[D] drop
    19. [A] achieve[B] undo[C] maintain[D] disregard
    20. [A] necessary[B] possible[C] promising[D] helpful

     

    Section ⅡReading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

    Text 1

    In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her. Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

    This topdown conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s threeyear indictment of “fast fashion.” In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed massmarket labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit. These labels encourage styleconscious consumers to see clothes as disposable—meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that—and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering ontrend items at dirtcheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

    The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a MYM5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300plus stores around the world, it must rely on lowwage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

    Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumeractivist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Massproduced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is nondurable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year—about 64 items per person—and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

    Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes—and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.

    Though several fastfashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment—including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line—Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

    1.  Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

    [A] lack of imagination.

    [B] poor bargaining skill.

    [C] obsession with high fashion.

    [D] insensitivity to fashion.

    1.  According to Cline, massmarket labels urge consumers to

    [A] combat unnecessary waste.

    [B] shop for their garments more frequently.

    [C] resist the influence of advertisements.

    [D] shut out the feverish fashion world.

    1.  The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to

    [A] accusation.

    [B] enthusiasm.

    [C] indifference.

    [D] tolerance.

    1.  Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

    [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

    [B] The fastfashion industry ignores sustainability.

    [C] Pricing is vital to environmentfriendly purchasing.

    [D] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

    1.  What is the subject of the text?

    [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.

    [B] Challenge to a highfashion myth.

    [C] Criticism of the fastfashion industry.

    [D] Exposure of a massmarket secret.

    Text 2

    An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted—the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.

    In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such finegrained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

    In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a “do not track” (DNT) option to internet browsers, so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT; Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

    On May 31st Microsoft set off the row. It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear with Windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

    Advertisers are horrified. Human nature being what it is, most people stick with default settings. Few switch DNT on now, but if tracking is off it will stay off. Bob Liodice, the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers, says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences. People will not get fewer ads, he says. “They’ll get less meaningful, less targeted ads.”

    It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.

    Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on advertising, it has chosen an indirect method: There is no guarantee that DNT by default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for Windows 8—though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google’s on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft’s chief privacy officer, blogged: “We believe consumers should have more control.” Could it really be that simple?

    1.  It is suggested in Paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to

    [A] lower their operational costs.

    [B] ease competition among themselves.

    [C] avoid complaints from consumers.

    [D] provide better online services.

    1.  “The industry” (Line 6, Para. 3) refers to

    [A] online advertisers.

    [B] ecommerce conductors.

    [C] digital information analysts.

    [D] internet browser developers.

    1.  Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

    [A] goes against human nature.

    [B] fails to affect the ad industry.

    [C] will not benefit consumers.

    [D] may cut the number of junk ads.

    1.  Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 6?

    [A] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT.

    [B] DNT may not serve its intended purpose.

    [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers.

    [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads.

    1.  The author’s attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of

    [A] appreciation.

    [B] understanding.

    [C] indulgence.

    [D] skepticism.

    Text 3

    Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely—though by no means uniformly—glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfilment and opportunity for all.

    Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.

    But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years—so why shouldn’t we? Take a broader look at our species’ place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the “Red List” of threatened species of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and you will read: “Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline.”

    So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has as its flagship project a mechanical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence.

    Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today’s technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it’s perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That’s one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.

    But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the longterm patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidencebased forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.

    This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.

    1.  Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

    [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment.

    [B] our faith in science and technology.

    [C] our awareness of potential risks.

    [D] our belief in equal opportunity.

    1.  The IUCN’s “Red List” suggests that human beings are

    [A] a misplaced race.

    [B] a sustained species.

    [C] the world’s dominant power.

    [D] a threat to the environment.

    1.  Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

    [A] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.

    [B] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.

    [C] Technology offers solutions to social problems.

    [D] Our immediate future is hard to conceive.

    1.  To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to

    [A] draw on our experience from the past.

    [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world.

    [C] explore our planet’s abundant resources.

    [D] curb our ambition to reshape history.

    1.  Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

    [A] Uncertainty about Our Future

    [B] Evolution of the Human Species

    [C] The Everbright Prospects of Mankind

    [D] Science, Technology and Humanity

    Text 4

    On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday—a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 80 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states.

    In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization” and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.

    Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court’s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held that Congress had deliberately “occupied the field,” and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers.

    However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federalstate immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.

    Two of the three objecting Justices—Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas—agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts.

    The 80 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power.” The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.

    Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The Administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.

    1.  Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

    [A] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.

    [B] disturbed the power balance between different states.

    [C] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.

    [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies.

    1.  On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph 4?

    [A] States’ independence from federal immigration law.

    [B] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’ information.

    [C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.

    [D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement.

    1.  It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts

    [A] violated the Constitution.

    [B] stood in favor of the states.

    [C] supported the federal statute.

    [D] undermined the states’ interests.

    1.  The White House claims that its power of enforcement

    [A] outweighs that held by the states.

    [B] is established by federal statutes.

    [C] is dependent on the states’ support.

    [D] rarely goes against state laws.

    1.  What can be learned from the last paragraph?

    [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.

    [B] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.

    [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.

    [D] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.

     

    Part B

    Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 4145, choose the most suitable one from the list AG to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of socialscience students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

    Yet this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges, including climate change, security, sustainable development and health. (41)  Humanity has the necessary agrotechnological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers. Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.

    (42) This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.

    Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental change” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004. (43)

    When social scientists do tackle practical issues, their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium, for example. And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.

    The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding. (44)  This is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.

    The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that the system be changed: Horizon 2020, a new program to be enacted in 2014, would not have such a category. This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the complete opposite. (45)  That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.

    [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is disciplineoriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problemoriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs.

    [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 socialsciences papers published globally included one of these keywords.

    [C] The idea is to force social scientists to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change; food security; marine research and the bioeconomy; clean, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.

    [D] The solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.

    [E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior: all require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.

    [F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for socialscience research and to integrate it within crosscutting topics of sustainable development.

    [G] During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds—including government, higher education, nonprofit and corporate—varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%.

     

    Part C

    Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

     

    It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic human need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an irrepressible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that selfexpression is a basic human urge; (46) yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

    One of these urges has to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47) A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardeners, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless, which are in effect homeless gardens, introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

    Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from, is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call forth the spirit of plant and animal life, if only symbolically, through a clumplike arrangement of materials, an introduction of colors, small pools of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50) It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia—a yearning for contact with nonhuman life—assuming uncanny representational forms.

    Section ⅢWriting

     

    Part A

    51.Directions:

    Write an email of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest.

    You should include the details you think necessary.

    You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

    Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.

    Do not write the address. (10 points)

     

    Part B

    52.Directions:

    Write an essay of 160200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

    1) describe the drawing briefly,

    2) interpret its intended meaning, and

    3) give your comments.

    You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

     

    选择2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

    答案及解析Section ⅠUse of English

    Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.  (10 points)

    【命题出处】

    本文节选自2012年7月16日《经济学家》(The Economist)上一篇题为《一个关于判断的问题:面试官先入为主》(A Question of Judgment: Interviewers Favour Those Seen First)的文章。

    【命题风格】

    2013年完型填空文章选自《经济学家》这本杂志。第一,文章选材的难度在向考研英语的阅读理解题目靠拢。第二,文章题材仍以说明文和议论文为主。2013年完型的文章话题是心理学中的做决定的问题,作者的观点非常鲜明,而且论证特别有条理,作者运用了通常的论证手法,比如举例论证、数据论证。第三,题目的设置以考察实词为主。2013年的20个完型题目中,其中15个全部考察的是实词,考核的重点指向实词的词义辨析、搭配,以及从整个语篇的角度理解词汇的意义,从一定程度上讲,测试了考生整体的理解能力以及对基础知识的运用能力。第四,分析答案得出,答案分布规律比较稳固,每个选项出现的概率接近百分之五十,这也是考生解题的一个小技巧所在。

    【文章导读】

    本文主要指出没有综观全局的能力会使人在做判断时产生偏见。

    【全文精译】

    总的说来,人们在做个人决定时不善于考虑背景信息。乍一看,这似乎是一种优势,这种优势(1)赋予你不受(2)外界因素的影响而做出客观判断的能力。但是,乌里· 西蒙松博士推测,没有综观(3)全局的能力会使决策者受他们日常所使用的信息样本的影响而产生偏见。(4)例如,他从理论上说明,(7)如果一位(5)担心(6)对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软的法官那天已经仅判处五六个其他被告强制社区服务,那么他更可能把某人关进监狱。

      为了(8)验证这一想法,他将注意力转向大学招生程序。按理说,申请者是否(9)被录取不应该指望同一天随机(10)被选中参加面试的少数其他申请者,但是西蒙松博士怀疑,事实(11)并非如此。

      他研究了由31位招生负责人(12)进行的9323场工商管理硕士(MBA)的面试结果。面试官按1到5级为申请者(13)评定等级。等级的评定(14)考虑了多种因素。(15)然后,等级评定分数会与申请者的管理研究生入学考试[简称GMAT,一种(16)满分为800分的标准化考试]的分数一起用以决定他或她是否被录取。

      西蒙松博士发现,每天一连串的面试者中,如果前一个申请者的分数比其(17)前面的面试者的分数高0.75分或更高,那么下一个申请者的分数会平均(18)减少0.075分。这个分值听起来很小,但是申请者要想(19)消除减少的这个分值带来的影响,其GMAT分数要比原本(20)需要的分数再多30分。

    【逻辑结构】

    开篇部分:开篇点题,引入全文要论证的观点。

    正文部分:指出乌里· 西蒙松博士为验证自己的观点而进行的研究及发现。

    【答案精解】

    1.【答案】  [A]

    【解析】  语义衔接+词义辨析题。文章首句指出一种普遍现象:人们在做个人决定时不善于考虑背景信息。第2句承接首句,指出表面上看,这似乎是一种优势,其后that引导的定语从句指出这一优势…做出判断的能力。浏览四个选项,只有[A] grants能与后面的the ability形成合理的动宾搭配,表示“赋予做出判断的能力”,符合文意,故答案为[A]。

    将[B] submits,[C] transmits,[D] delivers三个选项代入原文,分别表示“这个优点提交/传送/宣布一种能力”,均不符合语义逻辑关系,故均可排除。

    2.【答案】   [D]

    【解析】  语义衔接+词义辨析题。根据第1小题答案,空格所在句指出“这种优势赋予你不受…因素影响做出客观判断的能力”,空格处应填入一个形容词,修饰factors。将[D] external代入后,意为“不受外部因素的影响”,符合文意,故为答案。

    将[A] minor代入后,意为“不受次要因素影响做出客观判断的能力”,能否做出客观判断与次要因素关系不大,故可排除;将[B] objective代入后,造成语义重复,故可排除;将[C] crucial代入后,意为“不受决定性因素影响做出客观判断的能力”,不合文意,故可排除。

    3.【答案】  [C]

    【解析】  语义衔接+词义辨析题。空格所在句指出西蒙松博士的一种推测,“没有考虑…的能力会使决策者受他们日常所使用的信息样本的影响而产生偏见”,与文章首句相照应,首句指出“人们在做个人决策时不善于考虑背景信息”,因此,the big  3 与background information对应,能表示“背景信息”的只有[C] picture,the picture的英文释义为the general situation concerning sb./sth.,意为“状况,形势”,the big picture有“整体情况,大局”的意思,代入后意为“综观全局的能力”,符合文意,故答案为[C]。

    其他三个选项均可以和前面的the big构成搭配。 将[A]issue,[D]moment代入后分别意为“没有考虑大问题的能力”,“没有考虑重要时刻的能力”,语义不通,故可排除。将[B]vision代入后,意为“没有考虑远景的能力”,此处强调“全局”而非“远见”,故可排除。

    4.【答案】  [A]

    【解析】  逻辑衔接题。空格处应填入一个副词短语,作状语,体现空格所在句与第3句之间的逻辑关系。第3句提出西蒙松博士的一种推测。第4句中,西蒙松博士指出法官可能受之前判决的影响而重判某人,显然,西蒙松博士是在例证上一句中自己的推测,选项中表示例证关系的只有[A] For example。

    [B] On average意为“平均;普遍”,表示一种普遍的情况,一个法官的判决属于个体行为 ,并不代表全部法官都这样判决,故可排除;[C] In principle意为“大体上;原则上”,该句并不是阐释一种大体上的情况,故可排除;[D] Above all意为“最重要的是”,该句并未强调西蒙松博士阐释的力度,故可排除。

    5.【答案】  [B]

    【解析】  语义衔接+词义辨析题。本题可采用排除法作答。空格所在句中,that引导的宾语从句作theorised的宾语,该宾语从句的主干结构为a judge…might be more likely to send someone to prison…,空格处应填入一个形容词,构成形容词短语作后置定语,修饰a judge。be fond of doing sth.意为“喜爱(尤指长期喜爱的事物);喜欢(做令人不快的事情)”,将[A] fond代入后,意为“一位法官喜欢对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软”,显然与法官的职责相冲突,故可排除;be fearful of doing sth.意为“担心;忧虑”,将[B] fearful代入后,意为“一位法官担心对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软”,符合文意,也是法官在判处五六个被告人强制社区服务后更可能把某人关进监狱的原因,故正确。

    be capable of doing sth.意为“有能力做某事”,将[C] capable代入后,意为“一位法官有能力对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软”,不符合语义逻辑,故可排除;[D] thoughtless常指说话欠考虑、行为轻率,该词没有be ~ of doing sth.的用法,故可排除,综上所述,故答案为[B]。

    6.【答案】  [B]

    【解析】  固定搭配题。本题考查be soft on sth.的固定搭配用法,意为“不(够)严厉的;态度偏软的;(对…)心慈手软的”,将[B] on代入空格后,表示“法官担心对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软”,符合文意,故为答案。

    [A] in,[C] to和[D] for均不能和soft构成固定搭配,故可排除。

    7.【答案】  [A]

    【解析】  逻辑衔接题。空格前面是that引导的宾语从句的主干部分,意为“一位担心对犯罪行为表现得太心慈手软的法官更可能把某人关进监狱”,空格后面的句子意为“那天他已经判处五六个被告人强制社区服务”,显然空格前后存在假设关系,四个选项中只有[A] if表示假设,故为答案。

    [B] until表时间,[C] though表让步,[D] unless表条件,均不符合上下文的逻辑衔接关系,故可排除。

    8.【答案】  [D]

    【解析】  空格所在的不定式短语作目的状语,空格处应填入一个动词,与后面的this idea构成合理的动宾搭配,this idea即指代第1段中西蒙松博士的观点:没有综观全局的能力会使决策者产生偏见。空格所在句的意思为:为了…这个想法,他将注意力转向大学招生程序。下文均围绕大学招生程序中的相关内容展开,由此可知,西蒙松博士是以大学招生程序中“因不能综观全局而产生偏见”的情况为例验证自己的想法,浏览四个选项,只有[D] test可表示“验证,检验”的意思,故为答案。

    将[A] promote代入后,意为“为了推动这个想法”,表示西蒙松想在大学招生程序中推动自己的想法,显然不合常理,故可排除;将[B] emphasize代入后,意为“为了强调这个想法”,西蒙松博士的这个想法只是一种推测,并不成熟,强调这个想法的做法不合逻辑,故可排除;将[C] share代入后,意为“为了分享这个想法”,这个想法仅是西蒙松博士的推测,并未得到证实,因此,“分享”用在这里不恰当,故可排除。

    9.【答案】  [D]

    【解析】  空格所在句意为“一个申请者的…不应该指望少数其他申请者”,由上一句可知,内容的展开开始转向大学招生程序,此处的applicant显然指想进入某高校的申请者,申请者是否被录取不应该指望少数其他申请者,这是从理论上讲得通的,浏览四个选项,能表示申请者是否被录取的只有[D] success,代入后符合文意,故为答案。

    将[A] decision代入后,表示“申请者的决定”,作为某大学的申请者表明其已经做好了决定,用在此处重复,故可排除;[B] quality通常指事物的质量,此处修饰人,只能取其“人品,素质”的含义,代入后表示“申请者的人品”,一个人的人品是长期所形成的一种品质,大学录取主要的衡量标准还是分数,而非品质,故可排除;将[C] status代入后,表示“申请者的身份地位”,身份地位并非大学招生的标准,故可排除。

    10.【答案】  [A]

    【解析】  空格处应填入一个动词的过去分词形式,作后置定语,修饰others。空格所在的部分意为“同一天随机…参加面试的少数其他人”,根据常识可知,申请者哪天参加面试是面试官选择的,[A] chosen表示“被挑选出来的;精选的”,符合文意,故为答案。

    将[B] studied代入后,表示其他申请者成了面试的研究对象,显然不合常理,故可排除;将[C] found代入后,表示其他申请者是被随机发现的,不符合语义逻辑,故可排除;将[D] identified代入后,表示申请者被随机确认,显然不符合大学录取的严格标准,故可排除。

    11.【答案】  [D]

    【解析】  空格所在句是并列句,第1个分句意为“按理说,申请者是否被录取不应该指望同一天随机被选中参加面试的少数其他申请者”,第2个分句意为“但是西蒙松博士怀疑,事实…”,由but可知,空格前后的两个分句存在语义上的转折关系,因此,空格填入的形容词应能体现否定的意思,只有[D] otherwise表示否定,意为“不那样的”,代入后意为“事实并非如此”,符合文意,故为答案。

     [A] exceptional表示人“杰出的,优秀的”,不能用来形容the truth,故可排除;将[B] defensible代入后,表示“事实是合乎情理的”,与文意恰好相反,故可排除;将[C] replaceable代入后,表示“事实是可替代的”,不能体现转折的否定意味,故可排除。

    12.【答案】  [C]

    【解析】  本题的考查方式和第10小题相同,空格处应填入一个动词的过去分词形式,作后置定语,修饰interviews。空格所在句意为,他研究了9323场MBA的面试结果,这些面试是由31位招生负责人…的。由此可知,空格处填入的动词能与interviews构成逻辑上的动宾搭配,浏览四个选项,能与interviews构成合理搭配的只有[C] conducted,代入后表示进行面试,符合语义逻辑,故为答案。

     [A] inspired和[B] expressed代入后,分别表示“激励面试”、“表示面试”,语义不通,故可排除;将[D] secured代入后,表示招生负责人获得面试,显然与招生负责人进行面试的意思相反,故可排除。

    13.【答案】  [B]

    【解析】  空格所在句意为“面试官按1到5级为申请者…”,由空格后的on a scale of one to five可知,面试官将申请者评定为5个等级,而表示评定等级的选项只有[B] rated,故为答案。

    assign表示“分派,布置”时,通常的用法为assign sb. sth.“给某人布置(工作、任务等)”,而表示“指定,指派”时,通常的用法为assign sb. to/as sth.,这两种用法用在此处均不合适,故可排除[A]assigned;match后面接sb.时,通常的用法为match sb. to sb./sth.,意为“找相称(或相关)的人(或物)”,用在此处也不合适,故可排除[B]matched;arrange后面不能直接跟sb.,故可排除[D]arranged。

    14.【答案】  [D]

    【解析】  本题考查take sth. into consideration的固定用法,意为“考虑到,顾及”,将[D] took代入后,意为“等级的评定考虑了多种因素”,符合文意,故为答案。

    其他三项均不符合此处的固定搭配用法,故可排除。

    15.【答案】  [B]

    【解析】  空格所在句的主干结构为The scores were…used… to make a decision on whether to accept him or her,意为“分数用以决定是否录取他或她”,而录取与否取决于两个分数:由等级评定获得的分数和GMAT分数。上文指出面试官为申请者评定等级,显然空格所在句和上一句存在时间逻辑上的顺承顺序,[B] then可表示“然后”,符合上下文的逻辑关系,故为答案。

     [A] instead表示“相反”的转折,[C] ever常用于否定句或疑问句,也可表示进行比较时加强语气,[D] rather与动词连用时用以减弱语气,表示“稍微,有点儿”,这三项均不符合上下文的逻辑关系,故可排除。

    16.【答案】  [C]

    【解析】  空格所在的部分作同位语,解释说明GMAT,其中包含which引导的定语从句,修饰exam,空格处应填入一个动词的被动语态形式,可以和exam构成逻辑上的动宾搭配。out of 800 points意为“总分为800分”,可见,空格处要填入的动词应该表示“打分”的意思,故[C] marked为答案。其他三项代入后均不能表示“打分,评分”,故均可排除。

    17.【答案】  [A]

    【解析】  空格所在的部分作同位语,解释说明GMAT,其中包含which引导的定语从句,修饰exam,空格处应填入一个动词的被动语态形式,可以和exam构成逻辑上的动宾搭配。out of 800 points意为“总分为800分”,可见,空格处要填入的动词应该表示“打分”的意思,故[C] marked为答案。

    其他三项代入后均不能表示“打分,评分”,故均可排除。

    18.【答案】  [C]

    【解析】  空格处应填入一个不及物动词,表示分数的增加或减少,四个选项中表示增加或减少的只有[A]和[C],[A] jump表示“增加”的意思时,英文释义为to rise suddenly by a large amount,而空格后面的0.075分只是一个极小的分差,将[A]代入后,表达的意思与该单词本身的含义不符,故可排除;将[C] drop代入后,表示“下一个面试者的分数将平均下降0.075分”,符合上下文的语义逻辑,另外,根据文章末句中的decrease可知,空格处要填入的词应该表示“减少”的意思,故答案为[C]。

    [A]已经在详解部分排除;[B] float与the score不能构成合理的主谓关系,故可排除;[D] fluctuate指在某范围内波动,空格后并未涉及分数范围,故可排除。

  • Board  chairman  董事长

    General Manager/President 总经理

    Deputy General Manager 副总经理

    Executive Director执行总监

    CEO 首席执行官

    Deupty general Manager常务副总

    General Manager Assistant 总经理助理

    CTO  技术总监

    CFO 财务总监

    Operation Director 运营总监

    Branding Dirctor 品牌总监

    Marketing Director营销总监

    General Manager‘s Secretary 总经理秘书

    Vice Minister of Sales Department  销售部副部长

    Vice-general manager of Sales销售副总

    Sales director   销售总监

    General Educating Supervisor教学总监

    Vice Manager   副经理

    Marketing Manager     市场部经理

    Market  Supervisor  市场专员

    Business Manager  业务经理

    Account Manager 客户经理

    Market Analyst 市场分析员

    Market Development Manager 市场开发部经理

    Marketing Manager 市场销售部经理

    Marketing Staff 市场销售员

    Marketing Assistant 销售助理

    Marketing Executive 销售主管

    Marketing Representative 销售代表

    Marketing Representative Manager 市场调研部经理

    Business Controller 业务主任

    Sales and Planning Staff 销售计划员

    Sales Assistant 销售助理

    Sales Clerk 店员、售货员

    Sales Coordinator 销售协调人

    Sales Engineer 销售工程师

    Sales Executive 销售主管

    Sales Manager 销售部经理

    Salesperson 销售员

    Project Manager  项目经理

    Project  Director  项目总监

    Technical manager技术主管

    President  行长

    Vice  President  副行长

    Financing Manager 理财经理

    Channel section manager渠道经理

    Cedit manager信贷经理

    Office director办公室主任

    Personnel Department  人事部

    Human Resources Department  人力资源部

    Accounting Assistant 会计助理

    Accounting Clerk 记帐员

    Accounting Manager 会计部经理

    Accounting Stall 会计部职员

    Accounting Supervisor 会计主管

    Administration Manager 行政经理

    Administration Staff 行政人员

    Administrative Assistant 行政助理

    Administrative Clerk 行政办事员

    Advertising Staff 广告工作人员

    Airlines Sales Representative 航空公司定座员     

    Airlines Staff 航空公司职员

    Application Engineer 应用工程师

    Assistant Manager 副经理

    Bond Analyst 证券分析员

    Bond Trader 证券交易员

    Buyer 采购员

    Cashier 出纳员

    Chemical Engineer 化学工程师

    Civil Engineer 土木工程师

    Clerk/Receptionist 职员/接待员

    Clerk Typist & Secretary 文书打字兼秘书

    Computer Data Input Operator 计算机资料输入员

    Computer Engineer 计算机工程师

    Computer Processing Operator 计算机处理操作员

    Computer System Manager 计算机系统部经理

    Copywriter 广告文字撰稿人

    Economic Research Assistant 经济研究助理

    Electrical Engineer 电气工程师

    Engineering Technician 工程技术员

    English Instructor/Teacher 英语教师

    Export Sales Manager 外销部经理

    Export Sales Staff 外销部职员

    Financial Controller 财务主任

    Financial Reporter 财务报告人

    F.X. (Foreign Exchange) Clerk 外汇部职员

    F.X. Settlement Clerk 外汇部核算员

    Fund Manager 财务经理

    General Auditor 审计长

    Hardware Engineer (计算机)硬件工程师

    Import Liaison Staff 进口联络员

    Import Manager 进口部经理

    Insurance Actuary 保险公司理赔员

    International Sales Staff 国际销售员

    Interpreter 口语翻译

    Legal Adviser 法律顾问

    Line Supervisor 生产线主管

    Maintenance Engineer 维修工程师

    Management Consultant 管理顾问

    Manager 经理

    Manager for Public Relations 公关部经理

    Manufacturing Engineer 制造工程师

    Manufacturing Worker 生产员工

     

    Mechanical Engineer 机械工程师

    Mining Engineer 采矿工程师

    Music Teacher 音乐教师

    Naval Architect 造船工程师

    Office Assistant 办公室助理

    Office Clerk 职员

    Package Designer 包装设计师

    Passenger Reservation Staff 乘客票位预订员

    Personnel Clerk 人事部职员

    Personnel Manager 人事部经理

    Plant/Factory Manager 厂长

    Postal Clerk 邮政人员

    Product Manager 生产部经理

    Production Engineer 产品工程师

    Programmer 电脑程序设计师

    Project Staff (项目)策划人员

    Promotional Manager 推销部经理

    Proof-reader 校对员

    Purchasing Agent 采购(进货)员

    Quality Control Engineer 质量管理工程师

    Real Estate Staff 房地产职员

    Recruitment Coordinator 招聘协调人

    Regional Manger 地区经理

    Research & Development Engineer 研究开发工程师

    Restaurant Manager 饭店经理

    Office Assistant 办公室助理

    Operational Manager 业务经理

    Package Designer 包装设计师

    Passenger Reservation Staff 乘客票位预订员

    Personnel Clerk 人事部职员

    Personnel Manager 人事部经理

    Plant/Factory Manager 厂长

    Postal Clerk 邮政人员

    Product Manager 生产部经理

    Production Engineer 产品工程师

    Project Staff (项目)策划人员

    Promotional Manager 推销部经理

    Purchasing Agent 采购(进货)员

    Quality Control Engineer 质量管理工程师

    Real Estate Staff 房地产职员

    Recruitment Coordinator 招聘协调人

    Research & Development Engineer 研究开发工程师

    Restaurant Manager 饭店经理

    Sales Supervisor 销售监管

    School Registrar 学校注册主任

    Secretarial Assistant 秘书助理

    Securities Custody Clerk 保安人员

    Security Officer 安全人员

    Senior Accountant 高级会计

    Senior Consultant/Adviser 高级顾问

    Senior Employee 高级雇员

    Senior Secretary 高级秘书

    Service Manager 服务部经理

    Simultaneous Interpreter 同声传译员

    Software Engineer (计算机)软件工程师

    Supervisor 监管员

    Systems Adviser 系统顾问

    Systems Engineer 系统工程师

    Systems Operator 系统操作员

    Technical Editor 技术编辑

    Technical Translator 技术翻译

    Telecommunication Executive 电讯(电信)员

    Telephonist/Operator 电话接线员、话务员

    Tourist Guide 导游

    Trade Finance Executive 贸易财务主管

    Trainee Manager 培训部经理

    Translation Checker 翻译核对员

    Translator 翻译员

    Trust Banking Executive 银行高级职员

    Typist 打字员

    Word Processing Operator 文字处理操作员

    1. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way,the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

      【译文】 如果法律界的温和派占上风,产品的警示信息也许确实只是为了照顾顾客的利益,而不是充当免除法律责任的保护性措施。

    重磅阅读

        【析句】 在这个复合句中,If the moderate end of the legal community has its way是一个条件从句,for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability是主句的目的状语。
        【讲词】 to have one’s way意为“得逞;占上风”。I will never allow   him to have his way.(我决不会让他得逞。)A willful man must have his way.(只要人有恒,万事皆可成。)
        protection意为“保护”,但是有的时候也表示“保护性的措施”。
        moderate“中等的,适度的,适中的”,作动词意为“使缓和;主持”。
        The wind   was strong all day, but it moderated in the evening.(一整天来风都刮得很厉害,但到傍晚时有所减弱了。)
        She was chosen to moderate the debate between the two  presidential candidates.(她被推选主持两位总统候选人间的辩论。)

    1. Under modern conditions,this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and  operational research experts.

      【译文】 在现代条件下,这需要采取不同的中央控制,从而就需要获得诸如经济学和运筹学等领域专家的协助。
          【析句】 本句是一个简单句。句子的主干为this requires varying measures of  centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists,主语是this,谓语动词requires的宾语是两个,分别是varying measures of centralized control和the help of specialized scientists。such as economists and operational research experts是specialized scientists的同位语。
          【讲词】 measure意为“测量;尺寸;措施”,但在句中的意思为“程度,幅度”。 varying measures of意为“不同程度的”。
          centralized control指中央控制,即中央政策的控制。operational research意为“运筹学”,这个概念并不常见,个人认为翻译题中出现这样的词汇并不合适。
    2. Furthermore,it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry,and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all   kinds.

      【译文】 再者,显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高则又有赖于各种科技人员的努力。

    重磅阅读

        【析句】 本句的it是形式主语,真正的主语为两个that引导的从句,即that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry,以及that this in turn rests upon the efforts of     scientists and technologists of all kinds。另外应该知道在第二个从句中,this指代前面的efficiency。
        【讲词】 to be bound up with意为“与……联系在一起”或“与……相关”。The destiny of Hong Kong is bound up with the economic progress in the mainland.(香港的命运与大陆的经济增长息息相关。)Rockwell has realized that the thriving of the corporation and the local image in China are closely bound up with the     knowledge and the skill of the personnel.(罗克维尔公司已经认识到,公司的发展及在中国的形象与其人员的知识和技能密不可分。)

    1. Owing to the remarkable development in masscommunications,people   everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and     ideas,while governments are often forced to introduce still further           innovations for the reasons given above.

      【译文】 大众通讯的显著发展使各地的人们不断感到有新的需求,不断接触到新的习俗和思想,由于上述原因,政府常常得推出更多的革新。
          【析句】 Owing to the remarkable development in masscommunications作全句的原因状语,本句的主干为people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being  exposed to new customs and ideas。while governments are often forced to        introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above是一个时间状语,其中过去分词结构given above作后置定语,修饰the reasons。
          【讲词】 expose意为“揭露;曝光;暴露于;接触到”。The report exposed the secret operation which had been carried by the government.(这篇报导揭露了政府一直在从事的秘密行动。)Our troops were exposed to the enemy fire.(我们的部队暴露于敌人的火力之下。)You should expose yourself to English if you want to learn it well.(如果你想学好英语,就应该多接触英语。)
    2. In the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization—with all the farreaching changes in social patterns that       followed—was spread over nearly a century,whereas nowadays a developing      nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so.

      【译文】 在先期实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的各种深刻的社会结构变革,持续了大约一个世纪之久,而如今一个发展中国家在十年左右就可能完成这个过程。

    重磅阅读

        【析句】 本句的主干为the process of industrialization… was spread over   nearly a century。in the early industrialized countries of Europe作全句的状语,with all the farreaching changes in social patterns that followed是插入成分。注意连接词whereas引导的是一个表示对比的从句。
        【讲词】 翻译此句时,应该注意术语的翻译,因此industrialized country应该译成“工业化国家”,the process of industrialization译成“工业化进程”,         developing nation(country)译成“发展中国家”。
    undergo意为“经历,遭受,忍受”。You can hardly imagine the sufferings she  has been undergoing.(你简直无法想象她经历了多少磨难。)The old man lived for  five years after he underwent a heart transplant.(老人在经历了一次换心手术后活了5年。)

    1. Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population   explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements—themselves made   relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport.

      【译文】 由于人口激增,加上大规模的人口迁移所产生的问题(如今,现代交通工具使人口迁移变得相对容易)也会造成额外的社会压力。
          【析句】 本句的主干为Additional social stresses may also occur。because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements是表示原因的状语。themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of      transport在句中是附加成分,说明mass migration movements,完整的说法应该是that  (which) are made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport。 
          【讲词】 stress作名词时常见的词义是“压力;强调”。Our goal is not to     eliminate stress but to learn how to manage it and how to use it to help us.(我们的目标不是消除压力,而是要学会控制压力,如何使用它以帮助自己。)Zhang        Xuecheng was noted for his stress on the importance of local history of the    empire of China.(章学诚一贯强调研究中华帝国的地方史意义重大。)
  • 1.This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是This trend began during…, when…引导时间状语从句, 第一个that引导同位语从句,表明conclusion的内容。第二个that引导的是修饰demands的定语从句。

     

    译文:这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的具体要求,通常是无法详尽预见的。

     

    2.This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是This seems…done by supporting a certain amount of research not…but…,not…but句型,意为“不是……而是……”

     

    译文:给某些与当前目标无关,但将来可能产生影响的科研提供支持,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。

     

    3.However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是However, the world is so made that…systems are…unable to deal with some of the…aspects。so made指“如此构成”,so和后面的that构成so…that结构,意为“如此…以至于…”。

    译文:然而,世界就是这样。一般而言,完美的体系无法解决世界上某些更加引人入胜的课题。

     

    4.New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是New forms…must arise…as they have in the past。主语是new forms和new subjects,后跟介词短语as well as new subjects for thought,谓语是must arise。as在这里引导状语从句as they have in the past,have后省略了arisen,其内容与本句主语一致。giving rise to…是一个现在分词短语做状语。

     

    译文:同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。

     

    5.For Lloyd Nickson, a 54 years old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally III law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是the NT Rights…means he can get on with living without…。For Lloyd Nickson, 是状语,“a 54 years old…cancer”为Lolyd Nicks的同位语。此句的核心结构为Rights means…,he can get on with living without…是一个宾语从句。

     

    译文:对于现年54岁居住在达尔文的肺癌患者尼克逊来说,这个法案意味着他可以平静地生活下去,而无须终日担心将要到来的折磨:因呼吸困难而在煎熬中死去。

     

    6.Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement.

     

    结构分析:句子主干Someone had nowhere to turn to。traveling是现在分词,是修饰someone的定语。if引导的从句中均省略了“主语+be动词”的结构,这样显得句子简洁。

     

    译文:独自旅行时,如果没有了食物,受了伤或者生了病,通常只能向最近的小屋或者村落求救。

     

    7.We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是We live in a society。此句句子虽长,但是结构并不复杂,可以从冒号开始分为两个部分。in which引导了一个定语从句。该从句的分句谓语动词是is而不是are,是因为在这个从句中主语是use,而不是substances。在冒号后的部分中,quiet是及物动词,是“镇静”的意思。

    译文:在我们生活的社会里,物质(药品)被广泛地运用于社交和医疗,比如说服用阿司匹林来缓解头疼,喝酒来应酬,早晨喝咖啡来提神,吸烟来镇定情绪等。

     

    8.Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是Dependence is marked first by…, with…, and then by…。with引导的是伴随结构作状语,修饰的是整个第一分句描述的状态。and引导的分句省略了谓语动词marked ,所以该分句并不隶属于第一分句,而是与之并列的结构,when引导的是第二个分句的时间状语从句。

     

    译文:依赖最初表现为忍耐力增强,用量越来越大才能达到预期效果,一旦停用就会产生不舒服的症状。

     

    9.But he talked as well about the “balanced struggle” between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是But he talked as well about …, and he announced that…由and连接的两个并列成分构成。第二个分句中有一个that引导的宾语从句。

     

    译文:但他也谈到了创作自由与社会责任之间要“努力保持均衡”这一问题。他宣布公司将发起一次活动,以制定有关发行和标识可能招致大众反对的音乐的各种标准。

     

    10.Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是Average inflation fell。close to相当于省略了which was的非限制性定语从句。Before后面的成分是对全句的补充说明,是状语成分。状语成分可以置句首,也可以置句末,并无规定。之所以用rising,是因为before在这里是介词。

     

    译文:去年,七大工业国家的通货膨胀率下降到了2.3%,接近30年来最低水平,今年7月才小幅上涨到2.5%,比许多国家70年代和80年代两位数低了很多。

     

    11.Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America's, have little productive slack.

    结构分析:句子主干是Economists have been…surprised。主句用现在完成时have been…。Since引导的是表原因的状语从句。

     

    译文:特别让经济学家感到诧异的是,英美两国的通货膨胀带来的是良性的结果。因为传统的分析方法表明,两国尤其是美国的经济生产,几乎没有闲置的生产资源。

     

    12.Actually it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是Actually it isn’t…。主句很简单,而because引导的原因状语从句中,又有一个that引导的宾语从句。这个从句中,主语an agreed account of human rights由一个which引导的非限制性定语从句修饰,而这个非限制性定语从句中又有一个限制性定语从句the world does not have来修饰something。

     

    译文:事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

     

    13.Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是Some philosophers argue that…。that引导的宾语从句中,as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements充当了补语的角色。

     

    译文:有些哲学家主张说,权利只存在于社会契约中,是责任与利益相交换的一部分。

     

    14.Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是Arguing from the view that humans are…, extremists of this…逗号前面是一个现在分词短语,做状语,里面又有一个that从句做the view的同位语,逗号后面的that从句是一个宾语从句。

     

    译文:这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

     

    15.When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is …instinct…, an instinct that should be…。以冒号为界,将全句分成两个复合句。前面的复合句里,when that happens是时间状语从句。冒号后面的复合句里有一个that从句,做instinct的定语。

     

    译文:这种反应本身没有错,这是人类道德观念在进行推理时,本能在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励而不应遭到嘲弄。

    16.The Aswan Dam, for example,stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left - all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

    结构分析:句子主干是The Aswan Dam, …stopped the Nile flooding…but…

     

    有插入语。for example是个插入结构,不是句子的主要成分。but后面省略了the Aswan Dam。注意so…that…结构,是“如此……以至于”的意思。

     

    译文:以阿斯旺大坝为例,它挡住了尼罗河的洪水,但也使埃及失去了洪水冲积的肥沃土壤,换回来的却是一个病态的大水库。现在水库积满泥沙,几乎不能用于发电了。

     

    17.The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是The trouble is that…is due to…, and so is not…the trouble is that…是表语从句结构。后一个that引导的是修饰rebound的定语从句。

     

    译文:问题在于,近期的增长在一定程度上,是由于商业运作周期涨落的结果。因此,还不能得出经济已经呈现复苏态势这一结论。

     

    18.New ways of organizing the workplace ----all that reengineering and downsizing ----- are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training.

     

    【精析】New ways of organizing the workplace are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy.主系表结构

    两个破折号中间的成分 all that re-engineering and downsizing 为插入结构,同位语,可以视为括号里面的内容。Such as后面的内容是对many other factors的列举。which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training.非限定性定语从句。

     

    【精译】厂房布置的新方法--所有那些重新设计、缩小规模,这些只是促进某个经济实体的综合生产率提高的一项措施,还有其他许多因素可以促进其提高,比如对机械设备的联合投资、采用新技术、对教育培训投资等。

    【析词】re-engineering and downsizing 重新设计、缩小规模; contribution 原因和因素

     

     

    19.His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied reengineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability.

     

    结构分析:句子主干是His colleague,…, says,that… 引导的是宾语从句, chopping out costs without giving sufficient…是现在分词短语结构做状语。without后面要跟动名词giving。

     

    译文:他的同事迈克尔•比尔说,为数众多的公司以简单机械的方式进行结构重组,降低了成本,但却未能充分考虑长期赢利。

     

    1. Levi Strauss persuaded the court that, by selling its jeans cheaply alongside soap powder and bananas, Tesco was destroying the image and so the value of its brands--which could only lead to less innovation and, in the long run, would reduce consumer choice.

     

    【精析】主干Levi Strauss persuaded the court that 。。。。;that之后是一个宾语从句;by之后的动名词来做宾语从句的方式状语;宾语从句中主干是Tesco was destroying the image and so the value of its brands 。which又引导了一个非限制性定语从句,指代前面一句所述情况。

    【精译】利维.斯特劳斯公司使法庭相信特易购把利维牛仔服与皂粉,香蕉等放在一起廉价销售这一做法使其形象受损,品牌价值也因此受到了影响,这势必会使产品缺乏新意,最终减少消费者的选择。

    【析词】persuade.作\"说服;劝服\"解时,其主要用法有:v.“说服,劝服”,可用于以下结构中:persuade sb. to do sth.;persuade sb. into doing sth.;persuade sb. that-clause;persuade sb. out of doing sth;alongside adv.傍;靠;在旁边;在近旁;沿着边;并排地;(肩)并肩地;(与码头或其他船)靠拢着prep.在…旁边,在…附近;沿着…的边;和…并排;与(码头或其他船)并排靠拢着:The vessel anchored alongside the quay.船靠码头抛了锚。与…并存;和…一起(相比),跟…比较:Her paintings are second-rate productions, alongside those of some of her contemporaries.她的画作跟她同时代一些人比起来,只算得二流作品。In the long run 从长远来看。

  • 写作技巧(一)

      本文是根据网友willingking写的一篇05真题作文所做的述评,在分析全文的基础上谈了几点写作技巧,希望对广大考生有所帮助。尤其是处于写作初级阶段的考生,可以拿来参考一下。

      下面以willingking的第一段来剖析得失。

      willingking的第一段析评:

      As is shown by the above picture, we can see a hand which is putting on a computer mouse. The mouse is linked to the computer closely by an iron chain. Studying further, we will obtain more meanings. First and foremost, the iron chain stands for the addiction to the computer. Besides, the hand presents people who nearly have a habit/strong interest in using/use computers.

      「总体评语」

      总得来说,第一段如果作为应试的文章还可以将就。但是如果从写作的角度上说,就显得很平淡了,只是简单地描述了一下图画,指出了其中的喻义而已。这样来写,文章的价值就显得不够。就这样一件事真的值得写一篇文章来讨论吗?读者或许会这样发问的。

      如果想要把文章写活,对于这一幅画就应当“小题大做”。第一段中似乎应当造成某种冲突。我们甚至不必想象就知道,电脑原本是应方便、快捷之运而产生的。而图画中则变成了一种耗费时间与精力的事物了——它的功能在某种意义上走向了反面。

      另外,这一部分中还缺少了控制全篇的主题陈述。这样一来,这一段读完,读者仍然不知道作者究竟有什么样的观点、看法。这是一个比较严重的失误。

      「技巧评语」

      从第三句开始的写法还是可以的。首先指出了图画有多重意义,后面两句具体叙述意义体现在什么地方。语句之间还有过渡词语,两重意义体现得较为清晰。

      「语言评价」

      第一句有点罗嗦,而表现力不够。其实为了突出人受电脑的控制,完全可以这样来写 As is shown in the picture, a hand is glued tightly/firmly to the mouse.这一句中的其他不足在于As…picture中,介词应当用in;we … mouse至少可以更简洁,we can see a hand on a computer mouse.

      第二句中的will用得不好,语气有点生硬,不如用may显得柔和。另外,meaning也不准确,似应当用implications.

      第四句表达欠准确,我的意思是指该句没有能够充分体现电脑对人的控制。另外,该句中的过渡词语first and foremost中的and foremost是没有用的。事实上,第四、五句之间看不出哪个比哪个重要。这里用了foremost人为加强第一层含义,显得没有道理。提醒作者们注意,过渡词语只能表现被描述事物之间的关系,而不能够创造它们之间的关系。或许willingking是背模板套用的,但这样的只套用而不活用显然对写作是不利的,让人觉得这个过渡词语是陈词滥腔。

      写作技巧(二)——关于引入部分的写作

      很多朋友对这一分部写作的功能不太清楚。我们可以问这样一个问题:为什么考研作文要考生对图画进行描述?难道是仅仅为了考查考生的语言描述能力?我认为绝没有这么简单。因为,如果仅仅是为了考查考生的语言描述能力,考生在作文中其他地方表现出来的语言能力就足以让人判断出考生的语言水平如何了。其实,引入段有其在成文过程中的功能。

      第一是引入话题;

      第二是为整篇文章垫定价值意义,也就是这个话题为什么值得写这篇文章;

      第三是作者对话题中涉及的事物提出自己明确、个体的看法,亦即陈述统摄全篇的主题思想。这一点很重要;英语写作(说明文与议论文)一般是不需要也不应当让读者去归纳主题思想的,作者应当将自己的看法、观点明确的告诉读者。

      「这里需要指出的是,在很多考生作文练习中都缺乏主题陈述,以致造成文章中后面的扩展段落部分常常走题。让人读了觉得“言虽多而不要其中”。可见在引入部分不写主题陈述不仅对读者造成不便,也容易使作者(尤其是初级英语写作者)难以控制自己的思路。」

      而这上面三点中第三点、第二点比第一点更重要。因为第三点控制着全文,第二点决定了第一点的写法。所以有时候作者会在第一段的一开始就提出看法、观点,然后再去描述现象或事件;而有时候作者会在引入部分先进行描述,然后才提出看法、观点。无法将两种写法的差异归纳而条理化,很多考生都做不到,所以请大家在平时的阅读中自己体会。一般情况下,作者的观点是不会出现在描述过程中的;也就是说,大家要么将主题陈述放在引入部分的开始,要么放在这一部分的最后。但无论如何,陈述主题是必需的。

      也正是因为以上三点在引入部分的重要性的不同,对于事件的描述,有的时候是可以放入一个从句中去而成为一种背景信息,而不必非将它作为独立的部分写出不可(这一点请不熟悉作文模板的考生勿试,试不好会画虎不成反类犬的,请谨慎)。

      就willingking的第一段试改如下,以供参考。

      As is shown in the picture above, a hand is tightly glued to a computer mouse linked to a personal computer by an iron chain. Clearly, the iron chain stands for the control of the computer over the person who indulges himself in the cyberspace. An implication from the picture can be figured out that the personal computer, a high-tech device originally created for saving time and energy so as to benefit humankind, ironically turns out to be a gadget murdering the time and energy of quite some people.

      willingking的第二段析评:

      Obviously, it goes without saying that the drawing aims at revealing a common and serious problem: today, more and more people indulge themselves in playing computers . Due to lack of self-control, people indulge in computer deeply. What's more, this addiction does more harm to humankind than good. For instance, when a student gets lost in games, he should loses his interest in study. Similarly, when an adult indulges in on-line games, he may totally lacks concern about other stuffs. By indulging in games, they may get lost when they are dropping into the fictitious characters and fabricated stories and may not care for the reality.

      「总体评语」

      这一段写得甚至还不如第一段。首先,第一句中more and more people indulge … computers这里的语义已与第一段中的addiction有简单复重之嫌。而第二句则更是如此,直截了当地重复第一句中的indulge.依我之见,这两句如果要保留其中一句,那也应当将这一句放到上面一段中去,直接将这作为一个问题(problem)接在对图画的描述之后,或放在对图画的描述之前,作为引入句。

      这一段还有一个毛病,读起来让人觉得是为了说问题而说问题,不太像是第一段合乎逻辑的发展。我猜测,可能是作者写到这里不知怎样下笔才出了如此下策。

      「技巧评语」

      从第三句开始的写作意识还算不错。第三句可以算作一个比较浅显的观点,第四、五句可以看作是对第三句的举例说明。然而第六句呢,我看不出这一句的具体功用: 它似乎应当是一个与第三句平行或深入的一个观点,却无下文加以扩展,说明又像是对前两个事例的总体评说,如果真是这样,那么作者就并没有明确地表现这一点。第六句的写作是犯了写作的大忌,语句功能不清。

      「语言评语」

      第一句,套用写作模板,机械的历害。… it goes without saying that可以直接删除,aims也可以去掉,common太过分,不如用wide spread.另外,what's more这个过渡词无法使得下文与前面两句衔接起来,起不到承上启下的作用。第四、五句中分别有很不应该犯的语法失误:he should loses;he may …lacks处的两个动词都应当用原形。

      写作技巧(三)——关于扩展部分的写作

      关于扩展部分的写作,很多写作教材从写技巧的方面有说明,什么举例啦/比较啦/讨论因果啦,……等等。当然这些技巧是有用的,问题是什么时候来用,没有一本教材告诉大家,这是做不到的。这样一来,既使大家知道了这些技巧的说法,却仍然不能写出像样的文章。其中有两个可能重要原因:第一,引入段落中没有主题陈述,造成扩展部分没有依托,不知从哪里下笔;第二,有了一些想法,但却不知道这些想法中哪里需要扩展。这只是我读考生作文练习作品的推测,当然也不排除在写扩展部分有其他原因。

      其实,扩展部分的功能就是对引入部分中主题陈述的解释说明,也就是将主题陈述中最关键的那一点写清楚。如果那一点可以分为多个方面来说,那一般情况下扩展部就应当有相应的几个段落。如果要将这几个方面放入一个段落来写,那得有相当高的语言、结构能力才行,否则容易写乱。

      对于扩展部分的写作,首先要将主题陈述分方面、分小点,每一个小点应是一个分观点。然后对于这个分观点中哪一部分是关键词语(当然有时候整个语句都重要),后续的句子就可是说明、释义、突出意义等等策略使用,以写作中举例、因果、过程描述……技巧来体现。

      举我上面对willingking第一段修改后的最后一句为起点(那一句是控制全篇的主题陈述)来说明。

      这一句是主题陈述。其中主要信息是the personal computer turns out to be a gadget murdering the time and energy of quite some people.而这一句中关键词语是murdering time and energy而已。因此下文只须扩展这两点即可,也就是让读者看,电脑如今是如何糟蹋相当一部人的时间和精力的。

      那么文章的第二个自然段就应当围绕第一个方面:murdering time来扩展;第三个自然段围绕murdering energy来扩展。在考研中可以将这两个自然段合而为一,不过要很好地使用过渡词语,以表明这两点之间的关系。

      当然第二段的写作,一般不会直接说the personal computer murders the time of those who indulge in it. 这里须要将murder换成consume,因为主题陈述中的murder原本就一个比喻的用法,这里还原本义。但是还原本义之后,却不能体现作者的态度了,解决办法是添加副词来修饰,以表明作者的态度。顺便说一句,形容词、副词不是随便用的。用它们是为了准确表达,增强文章的表现力。这里可很简单地加上 worthlessly, 或uselessly,insignificantly …,但不能用meaninglessly.这样第二段的开始句(主题句)便可轻易地写出来了。The personal computer worthlessly consumes the time of those addicted to it./Those addicted to the personal computer always spend worthlessly their time on it.

      有了主题句,后面就该围绕这一主题句中consume worthlessly/spend worthlessly进行扩展,这个语词可称作这一段落的支配观点。如何扩展呢?先来分析一下这个短语中到底含有什么:第一, consume/spend,耗费时间;第二,worthless,毫无价值,甚至有害。

      关于consume/spend的扩展现在已经变化的很清晰了,只要写出电脑耗了那些人大量的时间就可以了。至于怎样表现大量时间不须我再说了,举例就行了。

      然后扩展worthless,这里也很清晰了,只需写出这些时间毫无回报,甚至有害,也是举例就可以了。见下文。

      As is shown in the picture above, a hand is tightly glued to a computer mouse linked to a personal computer by an iron chain. Clearly, the iron chain stands for the control of the computer over the person who indulges himself in the cyberspace. An implication from the picture can be figured out that the personal computer, a high-tech device originally created for saving time and energy so as to benefit humankind, ironically turns out to be a gadget murdering the time and energy of quite some people.

      The personal computer worthlessly consumes the time of those addicted to it. A survey shows the average time spent on it of those addicted amounts to 16 hours a day. And the minimum continuous time spent on the computer is 12 hours, while the maximum soars surprisingly to 168 hours-a whole week! Needlessly to say, the computer has eaten up their time for work, for sports and, worse still, their precious time for rest-a natural activity for refreshment to keep the body functioning normally.

      The personal computer has also depleted their vigor. In the survey, almost all those computer freaks feel sluggish in their jobs. They have lost their interests in outdoor activities. Some even become so feeble that they sweat when standing for a short while. It seems that they are being burned out by the high-tech monster.

      willingking的第三段析评:

      What should be done to cope with this severe phenomenon? In the first place, we must advertise more on this subject by mass media, in order to keep folks informed of the harm of abusing computers. In the second place, an education campaign must be launched, particularly among the get-use-to-computers young people. In the third place, the government should pass through relevant laws to limit on-line games. All in all, the whole society should try their best to solve this problem.

      「总体评语」

      第三段willinging总体上写得不错,提出了具体的解决办法,呼应了文章的一开始,没有走题,不错。问题在于办法虽多,却基本上没有写清楚为什么可以用这些办法的理由。这样一来,办法的可信度、意义就大打折扣了。

      「技巧评语」

      还可以。但还是显得欠灵活。其实,只需提出一种办法,说清楚它的好处就可以了。另外,第一句像是凑字数;这一问是不必要的。另外最后一句并没有能够围绕这一段中的前面三个办法来总述,显得大而无当。这似乎也是很多初学英语写作者的通病,喜欢大发感慨。

      「语言评语」

      罗嗦。第一句当删除。第二in the first place,可改为firstly; 后面的至少可改为we must inform them the harms from abusing computers by the mass media; 所以第一句可以改成To solve the problem, we must inform them the harms of abusing computers. 后面的类似,不再赘言。总的来说,语言过于追求复杂,使得要点淹没于眼花缭乱的词语和句式之中。

      写作技巧(四)——关于结尾

      结尾部分的主要功能在于呼应主题,使得文章有完整性。至于结尾的方法,多数写作教材都有说明,这里不再多说。但有一点还要提醒大家,结尾中该说清楚的地方还是要说清楚的。比如willingking的结尾没有提出每种办法的回报会体现在什么地方,因而结尾在细节方面不太成功。

      As is shown in the picture above, a hand is tightly glued to a computer mouse linked to a personal computer by an iron chain. Clearly, the iron chain stands for the control of the computer over the person who indulges himself in the cyberspace. An implication from the picture can be figured out that the personal computer, a high-tech device originally created for saving time and energy so as to benefit humankind, ironically turns out to be a gadget murdering the time and energy of quite some people.

      The personal computer worthlessly consumes the time of those addicted to it. A survey shows the average time spent on it of those addicted amounts to 16 hours a day. And the minimum continuous time spent on the personal computer is 12 hours, while the maximum soars surprisingly to 168 hour-a whole week! Needlessly to say, the computer has eaten up their time for work, for sports and, worse still, their precious time for rest-an natural activity for refreshment to keep the body functioning normally.

      The personal computer has also depleted their vigor. They survey finds almost all those computer freaks feel sluggish in their jobs as a result of staying too long before the computer. They also have lost their enthusiasms for outdoor activities. Some even become so feeble that they sweat when standing for a short while. It seems that they are being burned out by the high-tech monster.

      The sole way for the addicts to restore the proper use of the computer relies on themselves. Only when they have a sound recognition that the computer is but a tool to facilitate their life instead of their master can they develop their self-control. If they can limit their time on using the computer within 6 hours a day, their life will be freed from the trap of the computer and will return to its track.

      当然,这篇文章这样写还是有“小儿科”之嫌。只不过是将一篇短文写得有点像而已。如果真要写有关这一话题的文章,肯定是不会这样写的。比如,可以去探讨人们耽溺于电脑空间的心理原因。然而如果那样来写,恐怕会写得很复杂,不是一篇入门短文的能容纳的。

  •  写作是一个需要日积月累、不断完善的,在考研复习的基础阶段,整理和背诵一些好的句子或者段落,是很有帮助的。下面就是一系列写作必背好句:

      1. According to a recent survey, four million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking.依照最近的一项调查,每年有4,000,000人死于与吸烟有关的疾病。

      2. The latest surveys show that quite a few children have unpleasant associations with homework.

      最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感。

      3. No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet.

      没有一项发明像互联网一样同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评。

      4. People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation.

      人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实。

      5. An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation.

      越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束。

      6. When it comes to education, the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study. 说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习。

      7. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person's physical fitness. 许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康。

      8. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism.

      应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际旅游业的不利影响。

      9. An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effects on construction of city. However, this opinion is now being questioned by more and more city residents, who complain that the migrants have brought many serious problems like crime and prostitution.

      越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用。然而,越来越多的城市居民却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严重的问题,像犯罪和卖淫。

      10. Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus, which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers.

      许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少,以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车,而车上可能已满载乘客。

      11. There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.

      无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。

      12. An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement. 一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休。

      13.A proper part-time job does not occupy students' too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

      一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都用到学习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。

      14. Any government, which is blind to this point, may pay a heavy price.

      任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

      15. Nowadays, many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately, for most young people, it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus.

      当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生都会兴高采烈。然而,对多数年轻人来说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历。

      16. In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.

      考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施。

      17. The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.

      大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的。

      18. It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure.

      无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冻的痛苦生活。

      19. Although this view is wildly held, this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place.

      尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点、任何年龄进行。

      20. No one can deny the fact that a person's education is the most important aspect of his life. 没有人能否认:教育是人生最重要的一方面。

      21. People equate success in life with the ability of operating computer. 人们把会使用计算机与人生成功相提并论。

      22. In the last decades, advances in medical technology have made it possible for people to live longer than in the past.

      在过去的几十年,先进的医疗技术已经使得人们比过去活的时间更长成为可能。

      23. In fact, we have to admit the fact that the quality of life is as important as life itself.

      事实上,我们必须承认生命的质量和生命本身一样重要。

      24. We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

      我们应该不遗余力地美化我们的环境。

      25. People believe that computer skills will enhance their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

      人们相信拥有计算机技术可以获得更多工作或提升的机会。

      26. The information I've collected over last few years leads me to believe that this knowledge may be less useful than most people think.

      从这几年我搜集的信息来看,这些知识并没有人们想象的那么有用。

      27. Now, it is generally accepted that no college or university can educate its students by the time they graduation.

      现在,人们普遍认为没有一所大学能够在毕业时候教给学生所有的知识。

      28. This is a matter of life and death--a matter no country can afford to ignore.

      这是一个关系到生死的问题,任何国家都不能忽视。

      29. For my part, I agree with the latter opinion for the following reasons:

      我同意后者,有如下理由:

    1. Before giving my opinion, I think it is important to look at the arguments on both sides.

      在给出我的观点之前,我想看看双方的观点是重要的。

      31. This view is now being questioned by more and more people.

      这一观点正受到越来越多人的质疑。

      32. Although many people claim that, along with the rapidly economic development, the number of people who use bicycle are decreasing and bicycle is bound to die out. The information I've collected over the recent years leads me to believe that bicycle will continue to play extremely important roles in modern society.

      尽管许多人认为随着经济的高速发展,用自行车的人数会减少,自行车可能会消亡,然而,这几年我收集的一些信息让我相信自行车仍然会继续在现代社会发挥极其重要的作用。

      33. Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems such as global warming but also could threaten to end human life on our planet.

      环境学家指出:持续增加的污染不仅会导致像全球变暖这样严重的问题,而且还将威胁到人类在这个星球的生存。

      34. In view of such serious situation, environmental tools of transportation like bicycle are more important than any time before.

      考虑到这些严重的状况,我们比以往任何时候更需要像自行车这样的环保型交通工具。

      35. Using bicycle contributes greatly to people's physical fitness as well as easing traffic jams.

      使用自行车有助于人们的身体健康,并极大地缓解了交通阻塞。

      36. Despite many obvious advantages of bicycle, it is not without its problem.

      尽管自行车有许多明显的优点,但是它也存在它的问题。

      37. Bicycle can't be compared with other means of transportation like car and train for speed and comfort.

      在速度和舒适度方面,自行车是无法和汽车、火车这样的交通工具相比的。 38. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of bicycle far outweigh its disadvantages and it will still play essential roles in modern society.

      通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论:自行车的优点远大于缺点,并且在现代社会它仍将发挥重要作用。

      39. There is a general discussion these days over education in many colleges and institutes. One of the questions under debate is whether education is a lifetime study.

      当前在高校和研究机构对教育存在着大量争论,其中一个问题就是教育是否是个终身学习的过程。

      40. This issue has caused wide public concern.

      这个问题已经引起了广泛关注。

      41. It must be noted that learning must be done by a person himself.

      必须指出学习只能靠自己。

      42. A large number of people tend to live under the illusion that they had completed their education when they finished their schooling. Obviously, they seem to fail to take into account the basic fact that a person's education is a most important aspect of his life.

      许多人存在这样的误解,认为离开学校就意味着结束了他们的教育。显然,他们忽视了教育是人生重要部分这一基本事实。

      43. As for me, I'm in favor of the opinion that education is not complete with graduation, for the following reasons:...。

      就我而言,我同意教育不应该随着毕业而结束的观点,有以下原因:...。

      44. It is commonly accepted that no college or university can educate its students by the time they graduate.

      人们普遍认为高校是不可能在毕业的时候教会他们的学生所有知识的。

      45. Even the best possible graduate needs to continue learning before she or he becomes an educated person.

      即使最优秀的毕业生,要想成为一个博学的人也要不断地学习。

      46. It is commonly thought that our society had dramatically changed by modern science and technology, and human had made extraordinary progress in knowledge and technology over the recent decades.

      人们普遍认为我们的现代科技使我们的社会发生了巨大的变化,近几十年人类在科技方面取得了惊人的进步。

      47. Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

      现在越来越多的人开始相信学习新的技术和知识能直接帮助他们获得工作就会或提升的机会。

      48. An investigation shows that many older people express a strong desire to continue studying in university or college.

      一项调查显示许多老人都有到大学继续学习的愿望。

      49. For the majority of people, reading or learning a new skill has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness and contentment after their retirement.

      对大多数人来讲,退休以后,阅读或学习一项新技术已成为他们生活的中心和快乐的来源。

      50. For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge. Just as an old saying goes: it is never too late to learn.

      对于那些想过上健康而有意义的生活的人们来说,找时间学习一些新知识是很重要的,正如那句老话:活到老,学到老。

      51. There is a general debate on the campus today over the phenomenon of college or high school students' doing a part-time job.

      对于大学或高中生打工这一现象,校园里进行着广泛的争论。

      52. By taking a major-related part-job, students can not only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get from the textbooks.

      通过做一份和专业相关的工作,学生不仅能够提高他们的专业能力,而且能获得课本上得不到的经验。

      53. Although people's lives have been dramatically changed over the last decades, it must be admitted that, shortage of funds is still the one of the biggest questions that students nowadays have to face because that tuition fees and prices of books are soaring by the day.

      近几十年,尽管人们的生活有了惊人的改变,但必须承认,由于学费和书费日益飞涨,资金短缺仍然是学生们面临的最大问题之一。

    1. Consequently, the extra money obtained from part-time job will strongly support students to continue to their study life.

      因此,业余工作挣来的钱将强有力地支持学生们继续他们的求学生活。

      55. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that part-time job can produce a far-reaching impact on students and they should be encouraged to take part-time job, which will benefit students and their family, even the society as a whole.

      通过上面的讨论,我们不难得出结论:业余工作对学生们会产生深远的影响,我们应鼓励学生从事业余工作,这将有利于学生和他们的家庭,甚至整个社会。

      56. These days, people in growing numbers are beginning to complain that work is more stressful and less leisurely than in past. Many experts point out that, along with the development of modern society, it is an inevitable result and there is no way to avoid it.

      现在,越来越多的人们开始抱怨工作比以前更有压力。许多专家指出这是现代社会发展必然的结果,无法避免。

      57. It is widely acknowledged that computer and other machines have become an indispensable part of our society, which make our life and work more comfortable and less laborious.

      人们普遍认为计算机和其他机器已经成为我们社会必不可少的一部分。 它们使我们的生活更舒适,减少了大量劳动。

      58. At the same time, along with the benefits of such machines, employees must study knowledge involved in such machines so that they are able to control them.

      同时,随着这些机器带给我们的好处,员工们也必须要学习与之相关的知识以便使用它们。

      59. No one can deny the basic fact that it is impossible for average workers to master those high-technology skills easily.

      没有人能否认这一基本事实:对于一般工人来讲,轻松掌握这些技术是不可能的。

      60. In the second place, there seem to be too many people without job and not enough job position.

      第二方面,失业的人似乎太多而又没有足够的工作岗位。

      61. Millions of people have to spend more time and energy on studying new skills and technology so that they can keep a favorable position in job market.

      成千上万的人们不得不花费更多的精力和时间学习新的技术和知识,使得他们在就业市场能保持优势。

      62. According to a recent survey, a growing number of people express a strong desire to take another job or spend more time on their job in order to get more money to support their family.

      根据最近的一项调查,越来越多的人表达了想从事另外的工作或加班以赚取更多的钱来补贴家用的强烈愿望。

      63. From what has been discussed above, I am fully convinced that the leisure life-style is undergoing a decline with the progress of modern society, it is not necessary a bad thing.

      通过以上讨论,我完全相信,随着现代社会的进步,幽闲的生活方式正在消失并不是件坏事。

      64. The problem of international tourism has caused wide public concern over the recent years.

      近些年,国际旅游的问题引起了广泛关注。

      65. Many people believe that international tourism produce positive effects on economic growth and local government should be encouraged to promote international tourism.

      许多人认为国际旅游对经济发展有积极作用,应鼓励地方政府发展国际旅游。

      66. But what these people fail to see is that international tourism may bring about a disastrous impact on our environment and local history.

      但是这些人忽视了国际旅游可能会给当地环境和历史造成的灾难性的影响。

      67. As for me, I'm firmly convinced that the number of foreign tourists should be limited, for the following reasons:...。

      就我而言,我坚定地认为国外旅游者的数量应得到限制,理由如下:......

      68. In addition, in order to attract tourists, a lot of artificial facilities have been built, which have certain unfavorable effects on the environment.

      另外,为了吸引旅游者,大量人工设施被修建,这对环境是不利的。

      69. For lack of distinct culture, some places will not attract tourists any more. Consequently, the fast rise in number of foreign tourists may eventually lead to the decline of local tourism.

      由于缺乏独特的文化,一些地方不再吸引旅游者。因此,国外旅游者数量的快速增加可能最终会导致当地旅游业的衰败。

      70. There is a growing tendency for parents to ask their children to accept extra educational programs over the recent years.

      近些年,父母要求他们的孩子接受额外的教育呈增长的势头。

      71. This phenomenon has caused wide public concern in many places of world. 这一现象在全世界许多地方已引起了广泛关注。

      72. Many parents believe that additional educational activities enjoy obvious advantage. By extra studies, they maintain, their children are able to obtain many kinds of practical skills and useful knowledge, which will put them in a beneficial position in the future job markets when they grow up.许多家长相信额外的教育活动有许多优点,通过学习,他们的孩子可以获得很多实践技能和有用的知识,当他们长大后,这些对他们就业是大有好处的。

      73. In the first place, extra studies bring about unhealthy impacts on physical growth of children. Educational experts point out that, it is equally important to take some sport activities instead of extra studies when children have spent the whole day in a boring classroom.

      首先,额外的学习对孩子们的身体发育是不利的。教育专家指出,孩子们在枯燥的教室里呆了一整天后,从事一些体育活动,而不是额外的学习,是非常重要的。

      74. Children are undergoing fast physical development; lack of physical exercise may produce disastrous influence on their later life.

      孩子们正处于身体快速发育时期,缺乏体育锻炼可能会对他们未来的生活造成严重的影响。

    1. In the second place, from psychological aspect, the majority of children seem to tend to have an unfavorable attitude toward additional educational activities.

      第二,从心理上讲,大部分孩子似乎对额外的学习没有什么好感。

      76. It is hard to imagine a student focusing their energy on textbook while other children are playing.

      当别的孩子在玩耍的时候,很难想象一个学生能集中精力在课本上。

      77. Moreover, children will have less time to play and communicate with their peers due to extra studies, consequently, it is difficult to develop and cultivate their character and interpersonal skills. They may become more solitary and even suffer from certain mental illness.

      而且,由于要额外地学习,孩子们没有多少时间和同龄的孩子玩耍和交流,很难培养他们的个性和交际能力。他们可能变得孤僻甚至产生某些心理疾病。

      78. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that, although extra studies indeed enjoy many obvious advantages, its disadvantages shouldn't be ignored and far outweigh its advantages. It is absurd to force children to take extra studies after sch ol.

      通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论:尽管额外学习的确有很多优点,但它的缺点不可忽视,且远大于它的优点。因此,放学后强迫孩子额外学习是不明智的。

      79. Any parents should place considerable emphasis on their children to keep the balance between play and study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

      任何家长都应非常重视保持孩子在学习与玩耍的平衡,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。

      80. There is a growing tendency for parent these days to stay at home to look after their children instead of returning to work earlier.

      现在,父亲或母亲留在家里照顾他们的孩子而不愿过早返回工作岗位正成为增加的趋势。

      81. Parents are firmly convinced that, to send their child to kindergartens or nursery schools will have an unfavorable influence on the growth of children.

      父母们坚定地相信把孩子送到幼儿园对他们的成长不利。

      82. However, this idea is now being questioned by more and more experts, who point out that it is unhealthy for children who always stay with their parents at home. 然而,这一想法正遭受越来越多的专家的质疑,他们指出,孩子总是呆在家里,和父母在一起,是不健康的。

      83. Although parent would be able to devote much more time and energy to their children, it must be admitted that, parent has less experience and knowledge about how to educate and supervise children, when compared with professional teachers working in kindergartens or nursery schools.

      尽管父母能在他们孩子身上投入更多时间和精力,但是必须承认,与工作在幼儿园的专职教师相比,他们在如何管理教育孩子方面缺乏知识和经验。

      84. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that, although the parents' desire to look after children by themselves is understandable, its disadvantages far outweigh the advantages.

      通过以上讨论,我们可以得出如下结论:尽管家长想亲自照看孩子的愿望是可以理解的,但是这样做的缺点远大于优点。

      85. Parents should be encouraged to send their children to nursery schools, which will bring about profound impacts on children and families, and even the society as a whole.

      应该鼓励父母将他们的孩子送到幼儿园,这将对孩子,家庭,甚至整个社会产生深远的影响。

      86. Many leaders of government always go into raptures at the mere mention of artistic and cultural projects. They are forever talking about the nice parks, the smart sculptures in central city and the art galleries with various valuable rarities. Nothing, they maintain, is more essential than such projects in the economic growth.

      只要一提起艺术和文化项目,一些政府领导就会兴奋不已,他们滔滔不绝地说着美丽的公园,城市中心漂亮的雕塑,还有满是稀世珍宝的艺术展览馆。他们认为在经济发展中,没有什么比这些艺术项目更重要了。

      87. But is it really the case? The information I've collected over last few years leads me to believe that artistic and cultural projects may be less useful than many governments think. In fact, basic infrastructure projects are playing extremely important role and should be given priority.

      这是真的吗?这些年我收集的信息让我相信这些文化、艺术项目并没有许多政府想象的那么重要。事实上,基础设施建设非常重要,应该放在首位。

      88. Those who are in favor of artistic and cultural projects advocate that cultural environment will attract more tourists, which will bring huge profits to local residents. Some people even equate the build of such projects with the improving of economic construction.

      那些赞成建设文化艺术项目的人认为文化环境会吸引更多的游客,这将给当地居民带来巨大的利益。一些人甚至把建设文化艺术项目与发展经济建设等同起来。

      89. Unfortunately, there is very few evidence that big companies are willing to invest a huge sums of money in a place without sufficient basic projects, such as supplies of electricity and water.

      然而,很少有证据表明大公司愿意把巨额的资金投到一个连水电这些基础设施都不完善的地方去。

      90. From what has been discussed above, it would be reasonable to believe that basic projects play far more important role than artistic and cultural projects in people's life and economic growth.

      通过以上讨论,我们有理由相信在人们的生活和经济发展方面,基础建设比艺术文化项目发挥更大的作用。

      91. Those urban planners who are blind to this point will pay a heavy price, which they cannot afford it.

      那些城市的规划者们如果忽视这一点,将会付出他们无法承受的代价。

      92. There is a growing tendency these days for many people who live in rural areas to come into and work in city. This problem has caused wide public concern in most cities all over the world.

      农民进城打工正成为增长的趋势,这一问题在世界上大部分城市已引起普遍关注。

      93. An investigation shows that many emigrants think that working at city provide them with not only a higher salary but also the opportunity of learning new skills. 一项调查显示许多民工认为在城市打工不仅有较高的收入,而且能学到一些新技术。

     94. It must be noted that improvement in agriculture seems to not be able to catch up with the increase in population of rural areas and there are millions of peasants who still live a miserable life and have to face the dangers of exposure and starvation. 必须指出,农业的发展似乎赶不上农村人口的增加,并且仍有成千上万的农民过着缺衣挨饿的贫寒生活。

      95. Although rural emigrants contribute greatly to the economic growth of the cities, they may inevitably bring about many negative impacts.

      尽管民工对城市的经济发展做出了巨大贡献,然而他们也不可避免的带来了一些负面影响。

      96. Many sociologists point out that rural emigrants are putting pressure on population control and social order; that they are threatening to take already scarce city jobs; and that they have worsened traffic and public health problems.

      许多社会学家指出民工正给人口控制和社会治安带来压力。他们正在威胁着本已萧条的工作市场,他们恶化了交通和公共卫生状况。

      97. It is suggested that governments ought to make efforts to reduce the increasing gap between cities and countryside. They ought to set aside an appropriate fund for improvement of the standard of peasants' lives. They ought to invite some experts in agriculture to share their experiences, information and knowledge with peasants, which will contribute directly to the economic growth of rural areas.

      建议政府应该努力减少正在拉大的城乡差距。应该划拨适当的资金提高农民的生活水平;应该邀请农业专家向农民介绍他们的经验,知识和信息,这些将有助于发展农村经济。

      98. In conclusion, we must take into account this problem rationally and place more emphases on peasants' lives. Any government that is blind to this point will pay a heavy price.

      总之,我们应理智考虑这一问题,重视农民的生活。任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

      99. Although many experts from universities and institutes consistently maintain that it is an inevitable part of an independent life, parents in growing numbers are starting to realize that people, including teachers and experts in education, should pay considerable attention to this problem.

      尽管来自高校和研究院的许多专家坚持认为这是独立生活不可避免的一部分,然而越来越多的家长开始意识到包括教师和教育专家在内的人们应该认真对待这一问题。

      100. As for me, it is essential to know, at first, what kind of problems young students possible would encounter on campus.

      我认为,首先应看看学生们在校园可能遇到哪些问题。

      101. In addition to the obvious problem--loneliness, another major obstacle, in my opinion, is the alien environment of campus.

      除了孤独这一明显的问题之外,我认为另一个困难是对校园环境的不熟悉。

      102. Freshmen often get lost on campus; fail to find the way to dormitory or library. 新生常常在校园迷路,不知道去宿舍或图书馆该怎么走。

      103. Most important of all, apart from their hometown and parents, students couldn't catch sight of any familiar face and have to suffer from homelessness, which can cause certain serious mental disease.

      更重要的是,离开了家乡和父母,看不到任何熟悉的面孔,他们不得不忍受思家之苦,这可能会导致严重的精神疾病。

      104. In the first place, school authorities should provide far more services to help freshmen to get used to the new life as soon as possible.

      首先,学校应提供更多的服务,帮助新生尽快适应新的生活。

      105. The senior and junior students could share their own experience about how to overcome the difficulty they have ever met, how to adjust to the new environment with the new students.

      高年级学生可以与新生一起分享他们的经历:如何克服遇到的困难,如何适应新的环境。

      这次的写作必背好句将是完结篇,主要给大家一个写作积累和练习的思路,希望考生们可以在考研英语复习的过程中,不断发现、背诵、仿写好的句子和段落,进而独立撰写高质量的考研写作的文章。

      106. At the same time, young people should be encouraged to communicate with their peers and develop their interpersonal skills, which may help them greatly to reduce dependence on their parents and are essential in the maintenance of healthy mental condition.

      同时,应该鼓励年轻人和他们的同龄人交往,发展他们的交际能力,这将帮助他们极大地减少对父母的倚赖并且保持健康的精神状态。

      107. In conclusion, we must lay emphasis on this problem and make our maximum contribution to help them spend their first day on campus smoothly.

      总之,我们应重视这个问题,尽最大努力帮助他们平稳度过他们最初的校园生活。

      108. There is a general discussion over fashion in recent years. One of the questions under debate is whether a person should choose comfortable clothes, which he or she likes, regardless of fashion.

      近些年,关于时尚存在着广泛的争论。其中一个问题就是一个人是否应该选择他喜欢的舒适的衣服,而不管是否时尚。

      109. This issue is becoming a matter of concern for more and more people, especially for parents and experts in education.

      这一问题已被越来越多的人所关注,尤其是父母和教育专家。

      110. Many young people always go into raptures at the merely mention of buying fashion clothes. And they seem to be attracted by colorful material, various styles of fashion clothes. There is nothing, they maintain, that can't be compared with fashion clothes. In fact, fashion clothes had become indispensable part of youngster's life. 许多年轻人一提到时尚服装就兴高采烈。他们似乎被时尚服装那多彩的面料,各种不同的款式所吸引。

      111. Many people seem to overlook the basic fact: the major function of clothing is to keep us warm and comfortable.

      许多人似乎忽视了这个基本事实:衣服的基本功能是保持我们舒适和温暖。

      112. Furthermore, people who addict to fashion clothes have to spend more time going shopping and pay more attention to the impression they make on others. As a result, it is impossible to devote enough time and energy in their study and job.

      而且,沉湎于时尚服装的人们不得不花费更多时间逛商店,更加注意自己给别人的印象。因此,他们不可能有足够的时间用于学习或工作。

      113. No one can doubt the essential fact that the traffic problem over the last years has caused wide public concern all over the world. Experts in increasing numbers are beginning to believe that such situation would produce unfavorable effects on economic growth of local areas.

      没有人能否认这一重要事实:最近几年交通问题在全世界受到了普遍关注。越来越多的专家开始相信这种状况将对当地的经济发展产生不利影响。

      114. There are several reasons for this problem. One of the main reasons is that the number of vehicles is increasing much more rapidly than building of roads. Another primary reason is that there seem to be too many private cars and not enough public buses.

      关于这个问题,有很多原因。一个主要原因是车辆增加的数量远快于道路的建设。另一个主要原因是私家车过多而公交车不够。

      115. Meanwhile, the numbers of people, who have access to their own cars, have risen sharply in the recent years.

      同时,拥有私人轿车的人数这几年却在快速增加。

      116. Moreover, many people, including drivers and cyclists, do not obey the traffic rules properly, especially at busy intersections. And this undoubtedly worsens the already grave situation.

      而且,许多人,包括司机和骑自行车的人,不能很好地遵守交通规则,特别是在繁忙的十字路口,这无疑使本已严重的状况雪上加霜。

      117. The number of private cars in urban areas should be limited while the number of public buses should be increased.

      在城市私人轿车的数量应得到控制而公交车的数量应该增加。

      118. When asked what kind of school they are willing to send their children to attend, many parents say they would choose a boarding school rather than day schools for their children.

      当问到愿意将孩子送到哪种学校的时候,许多父母认为他们会选择寄宿学校而不是日制学校。

      119. Many survey show that people in increasing numbers are beginning to recognize that boarding school provides better environment and facilities for children.

      许多调查显示越来越多的人开始意识到寄宿学校能给他们的孩子提供较好的学习环境和设施。

      120. At the same time, there are still many people who live under the traditional ideas that day schools play an extremely important role in children's study.

      同时,仍有许多持传统观点的人认为日制学校对孩子的学习发挥着极其重要的作用。

      121. On the one hand, it is indisputable that boarding schools are exerting a growing important effect, especially in last few years.

      一方面,寄宿学校正在发挥越来越重要的作用,尤其是最近几年,这是无可争辩。

      122. Students attend a boarding school would cultivate their independence as apart from their parents. 离开父母上寄宿学校的学生将会培养他们的独立性。

      123. What's more, living in school can save them a great deal of time on the way between home and school everyday, so they would be able to concentrate more time and energy on their academic work.

      而且,生活在学校里能节省大量每天往返于学校和家的路上的时间,这会使他们有更多的时间和精力放在学习上。

      124. On the other hand, the contribution of day schools can't be ignored.

      另一方面,日制学校的贡献是不能忽视的。

      125. Due to high tuition fee, most of ordinary families cannot afford to send their children to boarding schools.

      因为较高的学费,大部分普通家庭支付不起他们的孩子上寄宿学校的费用。

      126. Since it is unnecessary to consider student's routine life, day school can lay stress on teaching instead of other aspects, such as management of dormitory and cafeteria. 由于无需考虑学生的日常生活,日制学校可以将重点放在教学上而不是放在像宿舍和食堂管理这些方面。

      127. Furthermore, students living in their own home would have access to a comfortable life and have more opportunities to communicate with their parents, which have beneficial impact on development of their personal character.

      而且,学生生活在自己家中,有舒适的生活,并有更多机会和父母交流,这对他们个性的培养是有

      128. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that both of day schools and boarding schools are important to train young students for our society.

  • Section A

    1.

    Dear Mr. Wang,

    I am much grateful to be employed by you two months ago as an editor for your magazine Design & Fashions. I appreciate the opportunity of having worked here with you and other colleagues. The experiences will be unforgettable throughout my life.

    However, as a young man whose primary interest is in computer science rather than fashion designing, I find my present job doesn't fall in with my previous training and strength. I therefore decide to quit this job for something else that may conform to my former preparation.

    Please accept my sincere apologies for any inconvenience my leaving may cause.

                                                              Yours truly,

                                                   Li Ming

    译文:

    亲爱的王先生,

      非常荣幸两个月前能够称为贵杂志Design & Fashions.的一名员工,我非常珍惜与您以及其他同事公事的机会,这将是我终身难忘的经历。

      但是,作为一个兴趣在计算机科学而不是时尚设计的年轻人,我发现我的工作与我之前的培训和自身长处不一致。因此我决定放弃目前的工作,转作其他与我兴趣一致的工作。

      如果我的工作带来了任何不便,请接受我真诚的歉意。

                                                         您真诚的,

                                                          李明

    2.

    Dear Sir or Madam,

    Moved by the noble cause of Project Hope and encouraged by what has been achieved so far, I would like to contribute my bit to the project by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area of your province.

    I would be much grateful if you could help me seek out a girl who has just started schooling but whose family cannot afford her education. My plan is to pay for her tuition on an annual basis till she finishes her secondary education. I would like to remit my donation directly to a bank account opened by her family in her local area.

                                                          Yours truly,

                                                          Li Ming

    参考译文:

     

    亲爱的先生或女士,

    我被“希望工程”这一崇高事业所感动,为它至今所取得的成就感到高兴。我愿意为“希望工程”尽一点绵薄之力,给贵省偏远地区的一个孩子提供经济援助。
    如果您可以帮助我找到一位已到了上学年龄,却因家庭贫困无力支付教育费用的女孩。我将感激不尽。我计划支付她完成中等教育每年所需的学费。 我会直接将我的捐款转帐到她的家庭所在地的自家银行帐户上。

                                                            你真诚的,

    李明

    3.

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    I am a student in this university who regularly comes to the library to spend my spare time. Generally speaking, the services you offer here are quite good; however, I have some suggestions for you to adopt. And I would like to extend my greatest appreciation if you are so kind as to take my suggestions into consideration.

    To begin with, will you please prolong the time for reading? In the daytime, most of the students are having class, so they can’t come to the library. Moreover, some of the books on shelves are out of date. If you are so kind as to provide us some books such as the latest magazines, we will be very pleased.

    I really wish to have a more comfortable library. Thank you for your time and consideration.

                                                             Sincerely yours,

                                                             Li Ming

    亲爱的先生/女士,

    我是本大学学生,经常利用业余时间来图书馆看书。总地来讲,图书馆的服务很好。但是我还是有些建议需要您们采纳。如果您们能够考虑我的建议,我会十分感谢。

    首先,您们能否将图书馆的开放时间延长?因为白天同学们都有课,所以不能来借阅。另外,图书馆书架上面的一些书籍过时了。如果您能够提供一些最新的杂志,我们会感到很荣幸的。

    我非常希望能够有一个舒适的图书馆。非常感谢您们对我的建议的考虑。

                                                                                         真诚的,

                                                                                          李明

    4.

    Dear Bob,

    I am writing to make an apology to you for I forgot to return a music CD which I borrowed from you last week. Yesterday I have come back from Canada and I found it in my luggage. I am so sorry that you cannot listen to it at present.

    The CD which I borrowed from you is made in Canada, so I believe you can find another one in your local store. How about your buying another CD by yourself and I will pay for it? If you cannot find the similar one, I would send it back to you through a post office. And if there are any other solutions you like, please let me know.

    I am sorry again for my carelessness. Looking forward to your reply.

                                                Yours sincerely,

                                              Li Ming

    参考译文:

    亲爱的鲍勃,

    我从加拿大回来后收拾行李时突然发现了你上周向你借的音乐CD,这才明白我忘记将CD归还给你了,我感到万分抱歉!很抱歉你现在不能听了。

    我向你借的CD是加拿大的,所以你应该可以在当地商店买到另外一个。所以你能不能自己买一个,我把钱寄给你?如果你找不到另外一个类似的CD了,我就用特快专递把这个CD寄回去。如果有你喜欢的其他方案,请告知我。

    再次为我的粗心道歉。期待你的回复。

                                                          真诚的,

                                                          李明

    5.

    Dear editor,

    I’m a sincere reader of your newspaper and I like your discussion of the social problems. Now I would like to give some opinions of myself about the “White Pollution”.

    As we know, regulation was made to solve the problem in June 1st of 2008. The use of plastic bags for free was restricted in the supermarket and many other shops. At the beginning, it was carried on well, but now I find plastic bags are used in some small shops for free or with no pay.

    I am writing to inform you that we should solve this problem soon with the help of your newspaper. You could make some investigations about it and write some reports of it, so as to appeal to all the people’s attention of our society.

    Sincerely,

    Li Ming

    参考译文:

    亲爱的编辑,

       我是贵报忠实的读者,我很喜欢你们对社会问题的讨论。我想就“白色污染”发表一下自己的观点。

       我们知道,为了解决这个问题,2008年8月1号 发布了一条法令:禁止在超市和其他商店免费使用塑料袋。开始时,这个法令执行的很好,但是现在我发现一些小商店还在免费使用塑料袋。

      我写信是为了在贵报的帮助下,我们应该可以解决这个问题。你们可以做一个相关调查,并做相关报道,以吸引全社会的关注。

                                                                       真诚的,

                                                                       李明

    6.

                                   Volunteers Needed

                                                          January 9, 2010

    To improve students’ability and enrich extracurricular activities, the Postgraduate Association is recruiting volunteers for an international conference on globalization to be held on December 9, 2010 in Beijing. To begin with, applicants should have Chinese nationality, a strong professional spirit, cheerful personality and be aged under 35. In addition, candidates must have outstanding skills at English listening comprehension and the ability to speak Chinese and English fluently. Finally, students with relevant professional experience are preferred. Those graduate students who are interested in taking part in it may sign up with the monitor of their classes before February 1, 2010. Everybody is welcome to join in it. (107 words)

                                                     Postgraduate Association

    参考译文:

    招募志愿者
                                                  2010年1月9日
      
       为提高同学们的能力并丰富课外活动,研究生会现招募2010年4月7日在北京举办的一次国际全球化会议的志愿者。首先,应聘者必须具有中国国籍、较强的 职业精神、令人愉快的个性,年龄在35岁以下。其次,申请人需具有卓越的英文听力水平以及流利的中英文演讲能力。最后,具有相关职业经验的学生优先考虑。 有兴趣参加的研究生请于2月1日之前在本班班长处报名。欢迎大家积极参加。

                                                                  ——研究生会

    7.

    Date:January 8, 2011

    To:George Gordon Byron, Vice President

    From:Li Ming, President

    Subject:Computer Training of the Staff

    As we discussed earlier this week, I agree with you that our firm is faced up with problem of the high rate of computer illiteracy of the staff. We need to make up a plan for training our employees in the new field.

    I would like you to design our own in-house computer-training program. We had better classify the employees and put them through the program in turn.

    Write up a brief proposal, describing what you think the program should cover. Assume the class runs four hours a week for ten weeks. Also, assume people have no prior computer knowledge or any formal course work in computer science.

    参考范文:

    日期:2011年1月8日

    致:George Gordon Byron,副总裁

    自:李明,总裁

    主题:员工计算机培训

    正如我们本周早期讨论的那样,我同意你的看法:我们公司正在面临员工高比率电脑盲问题。我们需要制定一个计划,在这个新的领域培训员工。

    我想让你制定我们自己的内部计算机培训计划。我们最好把员工分类,让他们轮流参加这个项目。

    写一个简要的计划,涵盖你认为这个项目需要包括的内容。假定培训为十周,每周四个小时,同时假定员工在计算机方面没有任何预先的知识或没有参加过正是课程。

    8.

    Main Reasons of Economic Globalization

    Since the early 1950s, economic globalization has been developing rapidly. Briefly speaking, its reasons mainly include the following ones. The first reason is the technical foundation of economic globalization. Advancements in science and technology have provided the material basis and the technical means for the rapid development of globalization. The second reason is the economic foundation of globalization. Firstly, the market economy has become the preferred choice of promoting economy for every country in the world. Secondly, multinationals which are expanding continuously have become the center of economic globalization. Lastly, international economic organizations have been the organic safeguards for the development of economic globalization. (104 words)

    参考译文额:

    从20世纪50年代早期,经济全球化发展迅速。简要来说,其原因主要包括以下几点:第一,经济全球化的技术基础。科学和技术的进步为全球化的发展提供了物质基础和技术手段。第二,全球化的经济基础。首先,市场经济是每个国家促进经济发展的首选经济模式;其次,持续扩张的跨国公司是经济全球化的中心力量;最后,国际经济组织一直是经济全球化的组织卫士。

     

    9.

    RESUME

     

    Li Ming

    1. O. Box 237, Beijing University

    5, Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871

    Tel: 62768888 Email: Liming@163.com

     

    Career Objective:    A position with management potential in the banking business specializing in international corporate financing

    Educational Background:

    Sept 2007 to    Beijing University

    July 2011      Major in International Business Management

    Main courses include English, Computer, Business Management, Accounting, International Commercial Law

    Work Experience:

    July 2010 to    Bank of China

    June 2011      Internship, Secretary to Deputy Manager of Marketing

                  Draft business correspondence

                Schedule deputy manager’s appointments

    Qualifications:         University graduation certificate and bachelor degree to be conferred upon graduation (2011)

                    College English Test Band 4 June 2008

    Honors & Awards:      Twice awarded scholarship by Beijing University 2009 & 2010

    Special Skills:          Familiarity with Microsoft Word, Excel

    Ability to work independently

    Outstanding Organizational skills

    Experience:            President of Student Union   2009-present

    Personal Data:         Date of Birth: 9/17/1988

                    Gender: Female

                          Marital Status: Unmarried (148 words)

    参考译文:

    李明

    北京大学237号邮箱

    北京市海淀区颐和园路5号 100871

    电话:62768888 电子邮箱:liming@163.com 

     

    求职目标:银行业国际融资方向具有管理前景的职位

    教育背景:2007年9月至2011年7月 北京大学国际商务管理专业

              主要课程:英语、计算机、商务管理、会计、国际商法

    工作经历:2010年7月至2011年6月 中国银行实习,市场部副总经理秘书

              起草商务函件、安排副总日程

    资    历:大学毕业证及学士学位(将在2011年毕业时授予)

              大学英语四级证书 2008年6月

    所获奖励:两次获得北京大学奖学金(2009、2010)

    特    长:熟练使用Microsoft words, excel

              擅长独立工作

              卓越的组织技能

    大学经历:2009年至今 校学生会主席

    个人资料:1988年9月17日

              性别:女

              婚姻状况:未婚

     

    10.

                             Welcome to English Club

                                                             January 8, 2011

    Welcome to English Club! It could serve as a platform to show your outstanding abilities and help you develop a range of great skills.

    You can be involved in a variety of activities including staging musical dramas, holding group discussions, watching Oscar-winning movies, and so on. These after-class activities could offer you ample opportunities. First, your active participation is helpful to strengthening the sense of responsibility and managing interpersonal relations. Second, various activities organized by us could raise your level of proficiency in English. A good command of English empowers you to enjoy decided competitive edge over your peers.

    You can file a written application to our staff office or email us via englishclub@163.com. The deadline for entries is January 14. Come on, join us now! (127 words)

                                                        English Club

    欢迎加入英语俱乐部

                                                           2011年1月8日

    欢迎加入英语俱乐部!它能成为一个平台,展示你卓越的才能,并帮助你开发众多技能。

    你可以参加各种各样的活动,包括表演音乐剧、进行小组讨论,观看奥斯卡获奖影片等等。这些课外活动能为你提供丰富的机会。首先,你的积极参与有助于培养责任感与开发人际关系。其次,我们组织的种类繁多的活动能提高你的英语熟练程度。良好的英语水平使你比其他人享有明显的竞争优势。

    你可以向我们的行政办公室提交书面申请或通过 englishclub@163.com 发送电子邮件。报名截止日期是1月14日。快来加入我们吧!

                                                        英语俱乐部

     

    Section B

     

    1.母鸡下蛋

    The past several years have witnessed a phenomenon that a variety of promises have been arising from all walks of life. Regretfully, quite a lot of promises are sheer nonsense, just as the hen in the given cartoon commits herself to lay eggs which are round without any angles and corners and have shells, egg whites and yolks.

    Odd and funny as they sound, such false promises can be seen and heard everywhere in our country. Administration departments assure to perform their tasks effectively and fairly without taking any bribes; manufacturing units guarantee to turn out products of good quality; commercial enterprises swear to provide genuine commodities and polite and enthusiastic services. Can you find anything new and substantial other than their obligations, duties and jobs in these so called promises? I guess your answer will be negative. As a matter of fact, their intention to make such commitments is nothing but to put on civilized outer clothing to please or deceive the public.

    I dare say that our society is suffering corruption and cheat which are causing damage to society both materially and morally. But the hen and her like should know that by dishonest words no one can survive the intense competition under market economy system. They should remember the old saying, “Honesty is the best policy”.

       过去的几年发生了一个现象:各行各业开始出现各种各样的承诺。遗憾的是,相当多的承诺纯属空话,正如漫画中的这只母鸡一样,承诺下蛋不见棱不见角,并保证有蛋壳、蛋清、蛋黄。

       尽管这些承诺听起来奇怪有趣,但在全国各地都可以看到或听到这样的虚假承诺。管理部门保证不接受任何贿赂,公正有效地履行职责;生产厂家保证生产高质量产品;商业企业发誓提供真货和礼貌热情的服务。在这些所谓的承诺中,除了他们的义务、责任和工作之外,你还能发现任何新的实质性的东西吗?我想你的答案将是否定的。事实上,他们做这种承诺的目的只是披上华丽的外衣以便取悦并欺骗公众。

      我认为这个社会正在受到腐败和欺骗的影响,这在物质和道德上都在对社会造成了危害。但这只母鸡及其同类应该知道:在市场经济体系的激烈竞争中,没人能通过欺诈的言语生存下去。他们应该牢记这条谚语:“诚实为上策”。 

    2.商业捕鱼

    As is vividly/symbolically shown/described/depicted/illustrated/revealed/portrayed in the cartoons/drawings/portrayals/photos/photographs/pictures, with the rapid/speedy social and economic development, the number of fishes has sharply decreased. In one picture, there were various kinds of fish and only one fishing-boat in 1900. On the contrary, in 1995 there was only one fish, but many fishing-boats.

    The purpose of this picture/cartoonist is to show us that due attention has to be paid to the decline of ocean resources. Owing/Due to over-fishing, the number of fishes has obviously shrunk. If we let this situation go/continue as it is, we do not know where fish will be in the near/forthcoming future. By that time, our environment will suffer a great destruction.

    Therefore/Hence/Accordingly, it is imperative/necessary for us to take drastic/effective/some measures/steps/actions. For one thing, we should appeal to our governments/authorities to make/legislate/enact/issue strict laws and regulations to control/regulate commercial fishing. For another, we should enhance/cultivate/increase the awareness/sense of people that the ocean resources are significant/vital/essential/crucial to us. Only in this way/by doing so can we protect our ocean resources. Also, I assume/maintain/reckon that we humans can overcome/surmount this difficulty, and we will have a brighter/more brilliant future.

    如图所示,我们可以清楚看出随着商业捕鱼的发展,鱼的数量明显下降。在一幅图中,1900年有很多种鱼,只有一艘捕鱼船。相反,在1995年,只有一条鱼,但是渔船很多。

    这些图画的目的是告诉我们应该充分重视海洋资源的减少。由于过渡捕捞,鱼的数量明显下降。如果我们让这种情况听之任之,我们不知道鱼的未来在哪。到那个时候,我们的环境将遭受巨大的破坏。

    因此,我们很有必要采取严厉措施。一方面,我们应该呼吁政府制定严格的法律控制商业捕鱼。另一方面,我们应该提高人们的意识:海洋资源对我们非常重要。只有这样才能保护我们的海洋资源。同时,我认为我们人类能够克服这个困难,并将拥有美好的未来。

    3.起点就是终点04年

    As is shown in the picture, on arriving at the finishing line of a race on the playground, the lovely young man has to continue his new journey in no time instead of stopping to take a rest. He has successfully settled the puzzle of “stopping or going on” which might have confused many others.

    With the increasing pace of modern life, perhaps no change has characterized the past decade more dramatically than that of people's view on their own life. It is generally agreed upon that people have to adjust themselves to this new change. On the one hand, no doubt, people will gain a lot by setting new goals in their daily life. Take the famous scientist Thomas Edison for example. He had done very well in his early life, but continued to pursue something more difficult all through his life. On the other hand, if one is obsessed with the success he has achieved, he would lose the chance to pursue new success. What is more, he may become the slave of his success. There are many cases showing that people lose their courage to better themselves after becoming successful.

    To sum up, one's view on his success determines his future. In my opinion, it is necessary to carry out a nation-wide campaign publicizing people who have a burning desire for more and ever greater achievement when they are already well-known. So that people in the society will develop a forward-looking attitude and make their life worth living and the world more beautiful as well.

     

    参考译文:

    如图所示,这个可爱的年轻人在到达比赛的终点线的时候,并没有停下来,而是立即开始新的征途。他已经成功的解答了这个疑惑“停止还是进取”,而这个问题可能迷惑了许多人。

    随着现代生活的加速,没有任何变化能比人们对自己生活态度的变化更能鲜明的代表过去十年。大家普遍赞同一点:我们必须调整他们自己以适应这个新变化。一方面,毫无疑问,人们通过设定新的生活目标获益良多,以著名的科学家爱迪生为例,他早年就已经有了不错的成绩,但是还是继续最求更困难的问题。另一方面,如果一个人沉迷于他已经取得的成就,他将丧失获得新的成功的机会。更糟的是,如果他可能变成成功的奴隶。成功之后失去改进自己的勇气的例子太多了。

    总之,一个人对成功的的态度决定了他的未来。在我看来,开展一项全国规模的运动,宣传那些对更美好未来和更大的成就有强烈追求,并已经获得成功的人,这一点是很必要的。这样社会上的人就可以培养出更前瞻观,并可以让他们的生活更有价值,我们的世界也将更美好。

    4.信心的重要

    As we can see from the picture, a football match is going on. On guarding the goal, the man on the left seems to be keeping a “huge goal” that is easy and inevitable for a goal, while the person on the right hesitates to kick the ball with an illusion about the “huge keeper”. It is obvious that both of them exaggerate the difficulties in front of them.

    This picture does reflect a thought-provoking social phenomenon which is not uncommon in China now. The young always give up because the problem is beyond their ability to cope with. Superficially, it seems to be somewhat reasonable, but when weighing in the mind, we find there is an apparent tendency underlying this phenomenon: the lack of confidence. Firstly, it is well-known that we exist in a dynamic world with various difficulties. We can do nothing but face them. Secondly, attitude is the key point to take the first step. Assuming bravery and confidence to solve the problem, you will find the question is not as “huge” as you imagine. Take us for example, the entrance exam for graduate students even seems to be a horrible monster before us. Some people give up, some persist. So, with confidence and the right assessment of the difficulties, try and exert your strength, and then we will overcome all problems.

    On the whole, I believe we young people should face the difficulties in right manner. And nothing is impossible, just do it.

    如图所示,一场足球赛正在进行。左边的人似乎在守一个对于射门轻而易举、不可避免的“大门”,而右边的人由于拥有关于“巨大守门员”的幻觉,踢球很犹豫。显而易见,他们两个人都夸大了面前的困难。

    这幅图画确实反映了一个目前在中国很普遍同时发人深思的社会现象。由于问题超出他们应对的能力,年轻人总是放弃。表面上看,这幅图画似乎有一些道理,但当我们仔细思考时,我们就会发现在这个现象之下有一个明显的趋势:缺乏自信。首先,众所周知,我们生活在一个充满各种困难的多元化世界。我们别无选择,只能面对。其次,态度是采取第一步的关键。拥有勇气和信心来解决问题,你就会发现问题并非你想象的那么“严重”。以我们自己为例,研究生入学考试似乎是我们面前的一个可怕的怪物。有些人放弃了,而有些人则坚持了下来。因此,拥有信心和对困难的正确估计,并且竭尽全力,我们就将解决所有的问题。

    总而言之,我认为我们年轻人应该以正确的方式面对困难。世上无难事,只怕有心人。

    5.合作

    As is vividly depicted in the picture, two disabled men are running fast through teamwork although each of them has only one leg. Obviously, it is teamwork that makes it possible for them to go anywhere they want to.

    Simple as it is, what the picture conveys to us is thought-provoking. With the development of economy and society, competition is increasingly fierce. It is impossible for anyone to finish a work all by himself. Hence, people in mounting numbers put great emphasis on teamwork. In fact, it has been universally acknowledged that the ability of teamwork is the most essential qualification that anyone who wants to achieve success should possess.

    Accordingly, it is imperative for us to take some measures to enhance the sense of teamwork in our society. We should bear in mind that teamwork is of great significance to both our society and ourselves. Every one should have the ability of teamwork. Only in this way can we achieve success and only in this way can our society become more harmonious to live in.

    如图生动所示,尽管两个残疾的年轻人只有一条腿,但他们通过团队合作跑得很快。显而易见,正是合作才使得他们走南闯北成为可能。

    尽管图画很简单,但它向我们表达了发人深思的含义。随着经济和社会的发展,竞争正变得日益激烈。任何人完全靠自己不可能完成一项工作。因此,越来越多的人非常重视合作。事实上,普遍公认合作的能力是任何想要获得成功的人应该拥有的最重要的条件。

    因此,我们急需采取一些措施提高我们社会中的合作意识。我们应该牢记合作对社会和我们自己都非常重要。每个人都应该拥有合作的能力。只有这样我们才能获得成功,而且只有这样我们的社会才能居住起来更加和谐。

     

     

    6.09年的网络

    As is illustrated in the cartoon, each person sits in their own work room. In front of them is a computer. Everyone looks at the screen carefully, and communicate with their colleagues through the net instead of talking face to face. Their work places are placed like a net. And below the cartoon, there is a topic which says: the near and far among the Internet.

    From the cartoon, we can conclude that the cartoonist wants to convey such a message: with the popularity of computers, people from all over the world become nearer by using the Internet to communicate with each other. Meanwhile, people also become far away from their friends. All of us accept the fact that the development of the internet brings lots of conveniences to our daily life, for instance, we can buy a book on the net instead of going to a bookstore. Besides, we can communicate with our friends on the net without going out of home. But we can’t ignore the other side of these: the time we spend with friends or family becomes less. And we hardly see them once in a week. It will make us feel lonely if we continue to use the tool on the net to talk with friends instead of talking with them on the phone or going out with them.

    To my best understanding, we should use the net to communicate with each other in a proper way. It is just a tool when we really need it to serve us. If we want to keep our friendship more effectively, we should spend more time with them in our real life. Only in this way can we not only make full use of the communication tool on the net but also make our friendship stronger.

    7.文化火锅

    As is symbolically illustrated in the portrayal, there is a boiling hot pot containing various ingredients of multi-cultures. These pluralistic cultures can be categorized as celebrities home and abroad as Bi Sheng, Lao She, Shakespeare and Einstein, philosophical concepts as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, benevolence, ritual, humanism, Enlightenment, post-modernism and deconstruction, as well as performing arts as Beijing Opera, Gong Fu, Liang Zhu and Swan Lake. We are informed that the culture “hot pot” is both delicious and nutritious.

    The purpose of the cartoonist is to show us that instead of being outdated and of little value in a rapidly modernizing world, cultural blending should be encouraged and maintained. On the one hand, mosaic cultures are part of the universal heritage of humanity and they are powerful means of bringing together diverse peoples and social groups. Consequently, cultural reintegration has become indispensable as a means of promoting further culture development and maintenance. On the other hand, for China, as for any other rapidly developing country, there is a danger that age-old customs and traditions may become lost in the shadows of modernization. If Liang Zhu, Beijing Opera or Swan Lake Ballet ever perished from the earth, it would be a tragedy of immeasurable proportions.

    In my view, multi-cultures can be kept alive by the people with the time to do so, and is extremely vital in ensuring a community’s future development and prosperity. As a consequence of successful commercialization efforts, unwavering government support and growing interest overseas, the future of cultural blending looks brighter and more secure than ever before.  

    如图象征性所示,一只沸腾的火锅中拥有诸多多元文化元素。这些多元文化可分为毕昇、老舍、莎士比亚、爱因斯坦等国内外名人,佛、道、儒、仁、礼、启蒙、人本、后现代、解构等哲学概念,以及京剧、功夫、天鹅湖等表演艺术。文字说明显示:“文化‘火锅’,既美味又营养。”

    画家的目的是告诉我们文化融合并未过时或失去价值,相反还应鼓励和保持。一方面,多元文化作为全体人类遗产的一部分,是将不同人群和社会群体融合的有力方式。因此,文化融合作为促进文化发展和保护的一种方式,已经不可或缺。另一方面,中国跟世界上其他快速发展的国家一样,年久的习俗和传统面临着消失在现代化阴影里的危险。如果京剧、功夫或天鹅湖从地球上消失,那将是不可估量的悲剧。

    在我看来,如果人们能为多元文化花费时间的话,那么它就能得以保护。这对确保社会将来的繁荣和发展都至关重要。由于成功的商业努力、政府坚定不移的支持和不断增长的海外兴趣,多元文化的将来会比过去任何时候更明朗、更安全。

    8.英语二的手机生活

        From the information given in the above column chart, we can see a striking contrast in mobile-phone subscriptions between developing and developed countries from 2000 to 2008. During this period, there has been a dramatic increase from 0.4 to 4 billion mobile phone subscriptions in developing countries, while that of developed countries remained steady under 1 billion during the decade.

        At least two fundamental factors could contribute to this phenomenon. On the one hand, with the rapid increase in economy happening in the developing countries, the telecommunication industry in those countries got a great bound to meet the demand of globalization. As a result, the user of mobile phone which can narrow the distance between people and link the whole world together rose at an incredible speed. On the other hand, the extremely advanced civilization of developed countries means less potential in many aspects including in the area of private telecommunication tools and their demand for further enlargement of such tools tend to saturation.

    In conclusion, while mobile phones subscriptions, if used carelessly or without restraint, could prove to be a double-edged sword, the fact remains that it is already extremely prevalent in both developing and developed countries and even today, continue rise in popularity. Given the levels of intelligence, prudence and discretion imbued in people, I am sure that most of them will be able to sidestep the potential drawbacks of mobile phones, while taking advantage of all its merits.

    参考译文:根据上述柱状图所提供的信息,我们可以看出从2000年到2008年,发展中国家和发达国家之间在手机入网方面存在着惊人的对比。在此期间,发展中国家手机入网从4亿急速增长到40亿, 而发达国家的相关数据只是在10亿之下保持平稳。

    至少有两点主要原因造成了这种现象。一方面,随着发展中国家发生的快速经济增长,这些国家的电信产业必然适应全球化的需求。因此,使用手机缩短人们之间距离并与全世界联系的人数以惊人的速度增加。另一方面,发达国家极端先进的文明在私人电信工具等诸多领域意味着更少的发展潜力,他们对进一步开发此类工具的需求趋于饱和。

    因此,如果不小心或没有节制,手机入网就是一把双刃剑。尽管这样,事实上,手机入网在发展中国家和发达国家中均十分流行,这种趋势甚至今天还在继续扩大。加入人们多动脑、谨慎些、具有判断力,我确信大多数人们都能客服手机入网的弊端、利用它的优势。

    9.全球变暖

    As is subtly revealed in the cartoons above, global warming is a real threat to our world. In the first drawing, the glaciers in the polar region are rapidly melting owing to global warming. In the second picture, a homeless polar bear is staying on an isolated big block of ice.

    The purpose of these portrayals is to show us that global warming is a looming threat to people all over the world. To begin with, global warming leads to the rise of sea levels. Large sections Chinese coastal regions would gradually disappear under rising sea levels because of global warming, severely impairing the country’s social and economic progress. China’s long coastline is the base for about 70% of the large cities, over half of the domestic population and nearly 60% of the national economy. With comparatively-advanced social, economic and cultural developments, China’s off-shore regions will suffer great losses if the sea level does not cease rising. In addition, global warming increases the possibility and intensity of extreme weather such as hurricanes and snowstorms. Hurricanes and typhoons have become stronger and longer-lasting over the past 30 years. These upswings correlate with a rise in sea surface temperatures due to global warming.

    Taking into account the devastating effects of global warming, we can draw the conclusion that global warming is a great threat to our world. Facing the growing menace of global warming, more scientific and active preventive measures should be taken on a larger scale to change for the better.

    正如上述漫画生动所示,全球变暖是当今世界的真正威胁。在图一中,由于全球变暖,极地冰川正在加剧融化。在图二中,一只无家可归的北极熊呆在一块孤立的大冰块上。

    这些漫画的目的是告诉我们:全球气候变暖对全世界的人们来说是迫在眉睫的威胁。首先,全球气候变暖会导致海平面的上升。由于气候变暖,中国大多数沿海地区都将随着海平面的上升逐渐消失,严重危害了国家的社会和经济发展。中国漫长的海岸线遍布着中国70%的大城市,人口数量占到全国总人口的一半以上,控制着国家经济的将近60%。这些城市的社会、经济和文化发展程度相对先进,如果海平面继续保持上升的话,那么对于中国的内陆城市来说将会承受巨大的损失。其次,全球气候变暖加大了出现极端天气的可能性并加重其强烈程度,例如飓风、雪灾。在最近30年里,飓风和台风持续的时间越来越长,强度也越来越大。这是与全球气候变暖所带来的海平面温度上升紧密联系的。

    考虑到全球气候变暖带来的这些毁灭性影响,我们可以得出结论:全球气候变暖是全球的一大威胁。面临着日益增长的威胁,我们应该大规模采取更加积极、科学的预防性措施来促使其向更好的方向发展。

     

    10.低碳生活

    As is symbolically illustrated in the picture, a lovely baby is sleeping comfortably on the beautiful earth with a little bird singing over him. In the drawing, a huge green umbrella shelters the baby and the earth from the threatening outside world. The caption indicates that we should advocate low carbon economy and cherish the earth.

    The painter aims at reminding us the relationship between low carbon economy and environmental protection. In the first place, low carbon economy is crucial to sustainable economic development. Economic expansion causes irreparable damage to our environment. A fragile ecological environment, insufficient environmental capacity and shortage of resources are becoming critical problems hindering the world’s development. If we want to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection should be integrated into our economic endeavors. Low carbon economy will have a direct impact on the overall situation of the world’s modernization drive and its long-term development. In the second place, environmental protection is in line with traditional Chinese culture. One of the core principles of traditional Chinese culture is to maintain harmony between man and nature. Many philosophies from Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism have emphasized the significance of a balanced environment. As an old Chinese saying goes, “Forefathers plant trees so future generations can enjoy the shade.” Protecting our environment and preserving a healthy environment for future generations goes hand in hand with Chinese culture.

    Generally speaking, low carbon economy is indispensable for sustainable development. Haunted by various environmental problems, we should put the low carbon economy at the core of our economic development plans and solve wide-ranging environmental problems before they evolve into environmental crisis.

    如图象征性所示,一个可爱的婴儿正舒适地睡在美丽的地球上,一只小鸟在他身旁歌唱。在图画中,一只巨大的绿伞保护婴儿和地球不受可怕的外部世界的侵害。文字说明显示:倡导低碳、呵护地球。

    画家旨在提醒我们低碳经济与环境保护之间的关系。首先,低碳经济对经济的可持续发展至关重要。经济的发展给我们的环境带来无法弥补的损失。脆弱的生态环境、环境容量不足和资源短缺现在成为阻碍世界发展的至关重要的因素。如果我们想持续发展,那么保护环境就必须与经济发展所做出的努力紧密结合。低碳经济将对世界的现代化进程和长期发展目标产生直接影响。其次,保护环境应该与传统的中国文化保持一致。中国传统文化的一个核心原则是维护人类和大自然的和谐统一。儒家、道家和佛家思想中的很多哲理都强调一个和谐的环境的重要性。中国有句古话:“前人栽树,后人乘凉“。因此,保护我们现在的环境、为后代维护健康的环境与传统的中国文化是一脉相承的。

    总之,低碳经济对可持续发展来说是必不可少的。各种各样的环境问题困扰着世界,因此我们应该把低碳经济放在经济发展计划的核心位置,在各种各样的环境问题演变为环境危机之前解决他们。

  • maintain v.①维修,保养;②维持,保持;③坚持,主张,支持 

    【真题例句】 Practice (or review) tends to build and maintain (②) memory for a task or for any learned material.[1995年阅读5] 【例句精译】 实践(或称复习)就是建立并保持对某一任务或所学材料的记忆。 

    【真题例句】 George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains (③) that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death.[2002年阅读4] 【例句精译】 波士顿大学健康法律系主任乔治·安纳斯坚持认为,只要医生是出于合理的医疗目的开药,那么即使服用此药会加速病人的死亡,医生的行为也没有违法。

     

    model n.①样式,型;②模范,典型;③模型;④原型,模特;v.onafter)模仿,构造

     【真题例句】 Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models (n.①) that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.[1997年阅读5] 【例句精译】 一些经济学家认为,旧的经济模式是建立在经济增长和通货膨胀历史联系的基础上的,而世界结构的巨大改变可能已使这套模式不再适用了。 

    【真题例句】 What they found, in attempting to model (v.) thought, is that the human brain’s roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented — and human perception far more complicated — than previously imagined.[2002年阅读2] 【例句精译】 在试图模仿人类思维的过程中,研究人员发现,人类大脑中的近1000亿个神经细胞要比以前想像的更聪明,人类的感觉器官也比以前想像的更复杂。 

     

    mo(u)ld  n.①模子,铸型;②霉菌;v.形成,成形 

    【真题例句】 Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold (n.②) on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then.[1994年阅读5] 【例句精译】 亚历山大·弗莱明爵士可不是像传说中的那样,看了一眼奶酪上的霉菌就立刻想到了青霉素的发明。 【真题例句】 68. The writer’s experiment shows that downshifting _____.[2001年阅读5]

    [B] helps her mold (v.) a new philosophy of life

    【例句精译】 68、作者的尝试表明:放慢生活节奏_____。 [B] 帮助她形成了新的人生观 

     

    narrow a.狭窄的,狭隘的;v.①限制,限定;②变窄,收缩 

    【真题例句】 For any job search, you should start with a narrow (a.) concept — what you think you want to do — then broaden it.[2004年阅读1] 【例句精译】 寻找任何职业,你都要从一个狭窄的概念开始,即你想干什么工作,然后再加以扩展。

    【真题例句】 Narrowing (v.①) your criteria, for example, may work against you: “Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility.” says one expert.[2004年阅读1] 【例句精译】 比如把个人求职要求越具体明确就有可能对你越不利,一位专家说:“你每回答一次问题你就丧失一次机会。”

    【真题例句】 It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed (v.②) as other countries grew richer.[2000年阅读1] 【例句精译】 随着其他国家日益强盛,美国从这一优势地位逐渐下降是不可避免的。 

     

    nature  n.①自然界,大自然;②性质,本性,天性 

    【真题例句】 No other species fills so many places in nature (①).[2000年阅读2] 【例句精译】 没有其他物种充斥着自然中如此多的空间。 【真题例句】 The jury agreed that the nature (②) of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete’s injury.[1999年阅读1]

    【例句精译】 陪审团也认为造成该运动员受伤的是这项运动本身的危险性,而不是头盔。 

    Note  n.①笔记,记录;②按语,注释;③便条,短笺;④钞票,纸币;⑤暗示,建议

    v.①记下,摘下;②表明,认为 

    【真题例句】 But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes (n.②) that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river — and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: “Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.”[2000年阅读3] 【例句精译】 在某首诗中,未来派诗人用一行文字描写了一名土耳其军官和一名保加利亚军官在桥上发生搏斗的场面,结果双双从桥上掉进河中;看了这首诗,有点让人摸不着头脑;后来看了注解才发现,诗把他们两人落水的声音和体重写在了一起:“扑通!扑通!185公斤。”

    【真题例句】 There is a heavy note (n.⑤) of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped — with the educated themselves riding on them.[2000年阅读5] 【例句精译】 他们的说法有着浓厚的虚伪色彩,正如马从马厩跑出来后再关上马厩的门,而受过良好教育的人自己正骑在那些马背上那样的虚伪。 

    【真题例句】 “The term ‘anti-science’ can lump together too many, quite different things,” notes (v.①) Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science, “They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened.”[1998年阅读3] 【例句精译】 “‘反科学’这个词可以涵盖太多截然不同的东西”,哈佛大学的哲学家杰拉尔德·霍尔顿在其1993年的著作《科学和反科学》中写道:“它们惟一的共同点就是会激怒或威胁那些自以为更开明的人。”

     【真题例句】 Boston Globe reporter Chris Reidy notes (v.②) that the situation will improve only when there are (17:comprehensive) programs that address the many needs of the homeless.[2006年完形] 【例句精译】 《波士顿环球日报》记者克里斯•雷迪认为只有通过全面规划来解决这些无家可归者的各种需求,这种局面才有可能得到改善。 

     

    novel  n.(长篇)小说;a.新奇的,新颖的 

    【真题例句】 Curiously, some two-and-a-half years and two novels (n.) later, my experiment in what the Americans term “downshifting” has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality.[2001年阅读5]

    【例句精译】 奇怪的是,大约两年半的时间我写完两部小说后,我这个被美国人称为“换低档”的试验,却使我老掉牙的借口变成了现实。 

    【真题例句】 60. When a novel (a.) literary idea appears, people should try to_____.[2000年阅读3] [A] determine its purposes

    【例句精译】 60、当出现新的艺术思潮时,人们应该尽力_____。 [A] 确定其目的 

     

    objective  n.目标,目的;a.客观的,真实的 

    【真题例句】 A unity of objectives (n.) that nonetheless respect the varied peculiarities of each country.[2005年翻译]

    【例句精译】 也就是说,既能达到我们共同的目的,又能兼顾不同国家各自的特色。 

    【真题例句】 They provide a quick, objective (a.) method of getting some kinds of information about what a person learned , the skills he has developed, or the kind of person he is.[1995年翻译] 【例句精译】 标准化测试提供了快速、客观地得到某些信息的方法。这些信息是有关一个人所学到的知识,他所获得的技能,或者是他属于哪一类型的人。

     

     

    oblige  v.①强迫;②责成;③(使)感激,施恩于 

    【真题例句】 Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige (①) television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution.[05年翻译] 【精译】 另外,欧共体的融合性也会迫使电视传媒集团在节目的制作和流通中,与他人更进一步地合作。 

    【真题例句】 (62) We are obliged (③) to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.[2004年翻译] 【例句精译】 (62) 我们之所以感激他们(两位先驱),是因为在此之后,这些(土著)语言中有一些已经不复存在了,这是由于说这些语言的部族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自己的本族语言。 

     

    opening  n.①口子,孔;②开始,开端;③空缺,机会;a.开始的,开幕的 

    【真题例句】 Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening (n.③).[2004年阅读1] 【例句精译】 过了三个星期,他接到第一份有职位空缺的通知。 

    【真题例句】 21. In the opening (a.) paragraph, the author introduces his topic by _____.[05年阅读1] [C] making a comparison.

    【例句精译】 21、在起始段,作者通过_____引入主题。 [C] 进行对比 

     

    outlet n.①出路,出口;②发泄方法,排遣;③经销店 

    【真题例句】 In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T’s violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet (②).[1997年阅读4] 【例句精译】 1992年公司因出品冰特乐队狂暴的说唱歌曲《警察杀手》而备受谴责时,列文把它描绘成是街头文化的合法表达方式,说它应该有自己的宣泄途径。 

    【真题例句】 From car dealerships to Gap outlets (③), sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending.[2004年阅读3] 【例句精译】 由于购物者节约他们的支出,从汽车代理商到Gap名牌零售折扣店,数月以来销售一直滞缓。 

     

    panel  n.①面,板;②控制板,仪表盘;③专门小组 

    【真题例句】 They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel (②) by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment.[2002年阅读2] 【例句精译】 他们建造的机器人在严格控制的工厂环境里,能够在仪表盘上识别毫米以下的误差。 

    【真题例句】 The panel (③) then informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.[1999年阅读4] 【例句精译】 随后,该小组非正式地接受了几条一般的结论,尽管有些细节尚无定论。 

     

    partial  a.①部分的,不完全的;②偏袒的,不公平的 

    【真题例句】 In this search the evidence found is always incomplete and scattered, it is also frequently partial (①) or partisan.[1999年翻译]

    【例句精译】 这样的研究中所发现的证据总是不完整的,通常也会带来片面性,还会出现帮派之争。

    【真题例句】 53. The author deems that the well-known TV personality is _____.[1995年阅读1]

    [D] obviously partial (②) in his views on advertising

    【例句精译】 53、作者认为:那位著名的电视人物_____。 [D] 对广告的评价有明显的偏见 

     

    passage  n.①段落,节;②通过,经过;③通路,走廊 

    【真题例句】 The hot spots and their volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage (②) of the plates.[1998年阅读5] 【例句精译】 热点及其火山痕迹是板块移动的标志。

     pattern  n.①模式,式样;②图案,图样;v.仿制,模仿 

    【真题例句】 And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns (n.①).[1997年阅读2]

    【例句精译】 当然,会讲一种语言并不意味着就理解该语言的社会和文化内涵。

    【真题例句】 Implicit within Tylor’s definition is the concept that culture is learned, shared, and patterned (v.) behavior.[2003年翻译]

    【例句精译】 泰勒的文化定义蕴含着这一概念,即文化是后天习得的,人类共有的,被模仿的行为。 

     

    pepper n.①胡椒粉,胡椒;②辣椒;vt.连续投(发问等)

     【真题例句】 Although no such evidence was preserved, the casino’s marketing department continued to pepper (vt.) him with mailings. And he entered the casino ad used his Fun Card without being detected.[2006年新题型]

    【例句精译】 虽然并没有证据,但是娱乐场的市场部门继续向他提供邮件。他进入娱乐场并使用他的卡片,并且没有人发觉。

     

    perfect  a.①完善的,无瑕的;②完全的,十足的;v.使完美,改进 

    【真题例句】 Such characteristics make them perfect (①) candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study.[2005年阅读1] 【例句精译】 因为这些特点,它们(猴子)成为了Brosnan和de Waal博士的最佳研究“侯选人”。 

    【真题例句】 However, there are still no forecasts for when faster-than-light travel will be available, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible.[2001年翻译] 【例句精译】 然而,对地何时能够进行超光速旅行,何时人类克隆技术能够完善,何时时间旅行成为可能,仍未作出预测。

     

     perspective  n.①视角;②透视法;③(in ~)正确地

    【真题例句】 (63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective (①) brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.[2003年翻译] 【例句精译】 (63) 强调收集第一手资料,加上在分析过去和现在文化形态时采用跨文化视角,使得这一研究成为一门独特并且非常重要的社会科学。 

    【真题例句】 Not everyone sees that process in (28:perspective) (③) .It is important to do so.[2002年完形] 【例句精译】 并不是所有人都能正确看待这一进程,虽然了解这一点非常重要。

     

    reason n.①理由,原因;②理性,理智;v.①推论,推理;②说服,评理;③讨论,辩论 

    【真题例句】 That’s one reason (n.①) why the idea of a national list hasn’t gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast.[2005年新题型]

    【例句精译】 这就是为什么全国性药品名录还未出台的原因,也是药品价格居高不下的原因。 

    【真题例句】 And so it does — and all would be well were reason (n.②) the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.[1996年阅读5]

    【例句精译】 的确如此——如果理性是创世纪论和进化论之争的惟一标准,一切问题也就迎刃而解了。 【真题例句】 He reasoned (v.①) that because it is easier to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think along one track and not along another.[2004年翻译] 【例句精译】 他归因到:因为人们很容易用某一特定的语言形成一些不容混淆的概念,语言的使用者往往会沿着同一条轨迹思考问题。 

    review v.回顾,复习;n.①回顾,复习;②评论 

    【真题例句】 Practice (or review) (n.①) tends to build and maintain memory for a task or for any learned material.[1995年阅读 

     

    Rocket n.火箭;v.剧增 

    【真题例句】 The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed (v.) and ticket prices have stayed low.[2006年阅读2] 【例句精译】 原因当然是虽然成本急剧上升,但票价仍维持在低水平。 

     

    school n.①学校;②(大学里的)学院,系;③学派,流派 

    【真题例句】 It should be observed, of course, that no school (①), vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.[1999年阅读3] 【例句精译】 当然应该看到的是,不管是职业学校、还是普通学校,混淆计算机教学的目的,都不会受益。 

    【真题例句】 And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School (②) believes that people will look back on this period as “a golden age of business management in the United States.”[2000年阅读1] 【例句精译】 哈佛商学院的威廉•萨尔曼相信人们将来回顾这一时期时,会把它视为“美国企业管理的黄金时代”。 【

    真题例句】 According to the new school (③) of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge.[1994年翻译] 【例句精译】 新学派科学家们认为,在拓展科学知识的范围方面技术是被忽视的力量。

     

    score [skC:] n.①得分,分数;②二十;v.得(分),记(……的)分数 

    【真题例句】 Anyone who keeps careful score (n.①) knows that the information available is always incomplete and that the predictions are always subject to error. Standardized tests should be considered in this context.[1995年翻译]

    【例句精译】 任何仔细记分的人都知道,所得到的信息总是不完全的,而且,这些预测总是会有错误的。应该根据这种观点去考察标准化考试。 

    【真题例句】 Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score (v.).[1994年阅读5]

    【例句精译】 创新就像踢足球,即使是最出色的球员也会痛失进球机会,其射门被挡出的机会大大多于进球的机会。

     

     select  v.选择,挑选;a.精选的,第一流的 

    【真题例句】 It does not push or pull, it selects (v.), and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.[2002年翻译] 【例句精译】 环境并不具备推动或拉动的作用;它具有选择的作用,而这一作用难以发现也很难对其进行分析。 

    【真题例句】 In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons media select (a.) committee, Lord Irvine said he (37:agreed) with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not (38:offer) sufficient control.[2001年完形] 【例句精译】 在写给众议院新闻媒体特别委员会Gerald Kaufman主席的信中,Irvine勋爵说,他赞同委员会今年的报告,该报告称,对自我约束并未予以足够的监控。 

     

    shape  n.①形状,外形;②情况,状态;③种类;v.成型,塑造 

    【真题例句】 (63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping (v.) and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.[2002年翻译]

    【例句精译】 (63) 自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。 

     

    sound  n.声音,声响;

    v.①发声,响;②听起来;a.①健全的,完好的;②正当的,有根据的;③彻底的,充分的 

    【真题例句】 Instead of describing sounds (n.) we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.[2000年阅读3] 【例句精译】 我们必须造出词语去模仿声音,而不应对其进行描述;我们必须在同一张纸上使用不同型号和不同颜色的墨水,

    【例句精译】 实践(或称复习)就是建立并保持对某一任务或所学材料的记忆。 

    【真题例句】 However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be (27:wise) to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, (28:for example), publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews (n.②), (29:displaying) student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs.[2003年完形] 【例句精译】 然而,青少年的生活已经充满竞争,所以为他们安排赢家多于输家的各种活动是明智的。例如,出版由学生自己编写书评的新闻小册子,展出学生的艺术品和赞助成立读书俱乐部等等。 

     

    spell  v.①拼写;②导致,招致;n.一段时间 

    【真题例句】 But the cult of the authentic and the personal, “doing our own thing,” has spelt (v.②) the death of formal speech, writing, poetry and music.[2005年阅读4]

    【例句精译】 然而,“做我们自己的事”——这一对事物真实性和个性的崇拜信条,已经给正式的演讲、写作、诗歌和音乐画上了句号。 

    【真题例句】 Despite a spell (n.) of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.[2002年阅读2] 【例句精译】 虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期——那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使它们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动——但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

     

     stor(e)y  n.①描述;②故事;③报道;④谎话;⑤楼层

     【真题例句】 If one wanted to become a computer engineer, that is, of course, an entirely different story (②).[1999年阅读3]

    【例句精译】 当然如果想成为一名计算机工程师,事情就完全不同了。 【

    真题例句】 In other words, there is a conventional story (③) line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.[2001年阅读3] 【例句精译】 换言之,在媒介机构的新闻采编室文化中存在着一套约定俗成的写作模式,为纷繁复杂的新闻报道提供了一个中心思路和现成的故事编写框架。 

     

    stress  n.①压力,应力;②重音;v.强调,着重 

    【真题例句】 We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress (n.①).[2000年阅读3] 【例句精译】 如果我们想诠释现代生活的压力,就必须加快文学发展的步伐。

    【真题例句】 While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress (v.) test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression.[2000年阅读4]

    【例句精译】 虽然日本的教育因强调基础知识而经常受到外国人的赞扬,但是它往往强调考试和机械学习,而不重视创造性和自我表现。 

     

    suit v.①合适,适合;②相配,适应;n.①一套西服;②诉讼 

    【真题例句】 The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited (①) for expressing joy.[2006年阅读4] 【例句精译】 最早的艺术形式,如绘画和音乐,是最适于表达快乐的。 【真题例句】 David Williamds’s suit (①) should trouble this gambling nation. But don’t bet on it.[2006年新题型] 【例句精译】 大卫威廉姆斯的起诉或许会在这个赌博民族中引发一些问题,但是也并不能确信。 

    【真题例句】 Nevertheless Williams’s suit (②) charged that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling” intentionally worked to “lure” him to “engage in conduct against his will” well.[2006年新题型] 【例句精译】 然而威廉姆斯还是控告娱乐场,明知道他“不可救药地赌博上瘾”还故意“诱惑”他“违背他自己的意愿参加赌博”。

     

    target n.目标,对象,靶子;vt.以……为目标 

    【真题例句】 That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped from a fishery comes when the biomass of a target (n.) species is about 50% of its original levels.[2006年阅读3] 【例句精译】 这十分重要,因为理论表明在目标鱼类单位数量是原始水平的大约50%的时候,才能保证渔场可收获的最大可持 意缩短或加长词语。 【真题例句】 It sounds (v.②) like a useful, ground-clearing way to start.[1997年翻译] 【例句精译】 这听起来像是一个有效的明显开始做事的方式。 【真题例句】 If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound (a.①).[2005年阅读2] 【例句精译】 假如我们要保护我们的大气层,关键一点是:新建的电厂必须是环保安全型的。 spectacle [5spektEkl] n.①[pl.]眼镜;②场面,景观;③奇观,壮观 【真题例句】 Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles (②), which now more than ever seem in ample supply:...[2000年阅读5] 【例句精译】 相反我们目睹了比以前任何时候都多的虚伪景观; 续产出量。

     【真题例句】 In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted (vt.) customers.[1999年阅读2] 【例句精译】 然而,在去年,软件公司开发出新的技术使得商家可以把产品信息推到消费者的计算机屏幕上。

     

    thumb  n.拇指;v.(~ through)翻阅 

    【真题例句】 It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb (v.) through their phone directories.Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life over Zoë Zysman.[2004年阅读2] 【例句精译】 人们早已知道在客户翻查电话簿时,名叫AAAA的出租汽车公司要比Zodiac出租汽车公司有很大的优越性。至于在生活方面Adam Abbott较之Zoë Zysman的优越性就不那么为人所知了。 

     

  • academic  a.①学校的,学院的;②学术的;n.学者,大学教师

     【真题例句】 If the preoccupation of schools with academic (a.①) work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values.[1995年阅读4] 【例句精译】 如果学校对学业的强调减少一些,也许就有更多的时间教孩子更重要的价值观念。 

    【真题例句】 Mr. McWhorter’s academic (a.②) speciality is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English.[2005年阅读4] 【例句精译】 麦克沃特先生的学术专长在于语言史和语言变化,举例来说,他认为“whom”一词的逐渐消失是很自然的,并不比旧式英语中词格的消失更让人惋惜。 

    【真题例句】 Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic (n.) and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “reengineering” has been crude.[1998年阅读2] 【例句精译】 哈佛学者伦纳德·施莱辛格是一家迅速扩张的美味面包店的前总裁,他说,许多“企业重组”都不成熟。

     Accommodate ①留宿,收容;②供应,供给;③使适应;使符合

     【真题例句】 And they also need to give serious (21:thought) to how they can be best (22:accommodate) (③) such changes.[2003年完形] 【例句精译】 他们也应该认真考虑青少年是如何适应这些变化的。 

     act v.①行动,做事;②(on)起作用;③表演;④(for)代表,代替;

    n.①行为,动作;②(一)幕;③法令,条例 

    【真题例句】 Governments throughout the world act (v.②) on the assumption that the welfare of their people depends largely on the economic strength and wealth of the community.[2000年翻译] 【例句精译】 世界各国的政府都基于一种观点行政,即人民的福利在很大程度上取决于本国的经济实力和国家的财富。 【真题例句】 The paid manager acting (v.④) for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 代表公司进行管理的领薪经理们与工人和工人的需求形成更加直接的关系,但甚至他们也很少像正在被淘汰的旧式家族企业的家长制中的雇主那样熟悉和了解工人的情况。 

    【真题例句】 Some , however , are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconception of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act (n.①) to alter the growth pattern of different areas.[1996年翻译] 【例句精译】 然而,不同的发展过程中,有些不怎么合理——在这些发展过程中,一些权威人士对科学研究应该采取的方式有偏见,从而改变了不同科学领域的发展模式。 

    【真题例句】 The commercial TV channels — ITV and Channel 4 — were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act (n.③) to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs.[1996年阅读2] 【例句精译】 按撒切尔政府广播法的要求,商业电视频道——第一和第四频道——正在进行商业化,彼此竞争广告业务,降低成本,裁减员工。 

    address  n.地址,通讯处,致词;v.①致函,写姓名地址;②向……讲话;③处理 

    【真题例句】 Depending on whom you are addressing (v.②), the problems will be different.[2002年阅读1] 【例句精译】 针对不同的听众,要谈的问题也应该不同。 

    aggressive  a.①侵略的,好斗的;②大胆的,积极的 

    【真题例句】 Now it is a social policy, the most important and aggressive (②) promoter of gambling in America is the government.[2006年新题型] 【例句精译】 现在这是一种社会政策,赌博业最重要的和最激进的支持者是美国政府。 

    anchor n.①锚;②新闻节目主持人;v.抛锚,停泊 

    【真题例句】 Fast-food eaters, news anchors (n.②), text messengers, all smiling, smiling.[2006年阅读4] 【例句精译】 快餐食客、新闻主播、发短信的人,都在微笑、微笑。 

    【真题例句】 Hot spots, anchored (v.) in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question.[98年阅读5]  位于地壳深处的热点提供了解决该问题的测量依据。

     

    appreciate v.  ①感谢,感激;②正确评价,欣赏,赏识 

    【真题例句】 66. The change in Japanese Life-style is revealed in the fact that_____.[2000年阅读4]

    【真题例句】 Boston Globe reporter Chris Reidy notes that the situation will improve only when there are (17:comprehensive) programs that address (v.③) the many needs of the homeless.[2006年完形] 【例句精译】 《波士顿环球日报》记者克里斯•雷迪认为只有通过全面规划来解决这些无家可归者的各种需求,这种局面才有可能得到改善。 

    [D] the Japanese appreciate (②) their present life 【例句精译】 66、_____事实显示:日本人的生活方式发生了改变。 

    [D] 日本人欣赏现有的生活 

     

    apprehensive a.①有理解力的;②忧虑的,担心的 

    【真题例句】 52. What is many captive shippers’ attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?[2003年阅读3]

    [D] Apprehensive (②). 【例句精译】 52、许多受控制的托运人对铁路部门的合并是什么态度? 

     

    argue v.①争论,辩论;②认为,主张,论证;③说服 

    【真题例句】 The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people, arguing (①) about the rights of animals is fruitless.[1997年翻译] 【例句精译】 关键问题是:如果对人的权利没有共同认识,那么讨论动物的权利就是毫无结果的。 

    【真题例句】 He is not arguing (②), as many do, that we can no longer think straight because we do not talk proper.[2005年阅读4] 【例句精译】 不像其他大多数人,麦克沃特先生并不认为我们说话方式不规范就不能使我们直接思考。 

     

    attach v.①(to)缚上,系上,贴上;②使依附,使隶属,使依恋;③附加,附带;④把~放在 

    【真题例句】 A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the anti-science tag has been attached (①) to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.[1998年阅读3] 【例句精译】 1996年对新闻报道的调查表明,反科学的标签也贴在了许多其他群体身上,这些人包括从提倡消灭所有现存的天花病毒的官方人士到倡议削减基础研究基金的共和党人。

    【真题例句】 They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any, strings attached (③).[2005年新题型] 【例句精译】 这些官员(尤其是魁北克省和阿伯塔省)只希望政府当局额外出钱, 如有可能,还会附带条件。 【真题例句】 The modern school that hails technology argues that such masters as Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and inventors such as Edison attached (④) great importance to, and derived great benefit from, craft information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments.[1994年翻译] 【例句精译】 推崇技术的现代学派认为,像伽利略、牛顿、麦克斯韦、爱因斯坦这样的大师以及像爱迪生这样的发明家都非常重视科学实验中使用的不同技术信息和技术设施,并从中受益颇深。 

     

    contend v.①竞争,斗争;②坚决主张,声称,认为

    【真题例句】 It is the playgoers, the RSC contends (②), who bring in much of the town’s revenue because they spend the night (some of them four or five nights) pouring cash into the hotels and restaurants.[2006年阅读2] 【例句精译】 皇家莎士比亚公司(RSC)声称是看戏的人给小镇带来了大部分收入,因为他们整个晚上(有时甚至是四、五个晚上)都把钱花到旅馆和饭店上。

     

    cook [kuk] n.炊事员,厨师;v.①烹调,煮,烧;②伪造 

    【真题例句】 If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook (n.①)

     

    beam  n.①(横)梁,桁条;②(光线的)束,柱;v.①微笑;②发光 

    【真题例句】 Our magazines feature beaming (v.①) celebrities and happy families in perfect homes.[2006年阅读4] 【例句精译】 我们的杂志突出刊登满面春风的名人和美满幸福的家庭。

     

    cement  n.①水泥;②胶泥,胶接剂;v.①胶合;②巩固,加强

    【真题例句】 Egypt’s leadership in the Arab world was cemented (v.②) by the Aswan High Dam.[1998年阅读1] 【例句精译】 埃及在阿拉伯世界的领导地位因阿斯旺大坝而得以巩固。 

     

    chair n.①椅子;②主席(职位);vt.主持,担任 

    【真题例句】 “It’s your dream,” says Rosalind Cartwright, chair (n.②) of psychology at Chicago’s Medical Center,“If you don’t like it, change it.”[2005年阅读3] 【例句精译】 芝加哥医疗中心心理部主任Rosalind Cartwright指出“这是你的梦,你不喜欢它,你可以改变它”。 

    【真题例句】 Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel of experts chaired (vt.) by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.[1999年阅读4] 【例句精译】 他宣称反对利用这种非同寻常的畜牧学技术去克隆人,并下令禁止使用联邦资金做这样的实验——尽管还没有人提出那样的要求——并责令成立一个由普林斯顿大学校长哈罗德•夏皮罗为首的独立专家小组,在90天内拿出有关克隆人的国策建议,向白宫汇报。

     

     climate n.①气候;②风气,社会思潮 

    【真题例句】 The flight from overcrowdedness affects the migration from snow belt to more bearable climates (①).[1998年阅读4] 【例句精译】 逃离人口过度稠密区的做法改变了以前那种离开寒冷地带去气候宜人之地的趋势。 【真题例句】 When the work is well done, a (43:climate) (②) of accident-free operations is established (44:where) time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum.[1999年完形] 【例句精译】 如果此项工作做得好的话,就会形成无事故作业的好风气,因此那儿的因工伤事故所造成的时间损失就会被控制在最低限度。 

     

    code n.①代码,代号,密码;②法典,法规,规划 

    【真题例句】 Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo could be used by the US military as a code (①) during World War II to send secret messages.[2004年翻译] 【例句精译】 美洲的土著语言是如此地“与众不同”,甚至美军在第二次世界大战中用土著语言Navajo发送密码。 【真题例句】 (49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code (②), which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. [2006年翻译] 【例句精译】 (49) 但是,普通科学家的主要任务并非思考指导其行为的道德规范,正如我们并不指望商人把精力投入到商业行为的探索一样。 

     

    column [5kClEm] n.①圆柱,柱状物;②列;③(报刊中的)专栏 

    【真题例句】 “The test of any democratic society,” he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column (③), “lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be.”[1997年阅读4] 【例句精译】 他在《华尔街日报》一篇专栏文章中写道:“对任何一个民主社会的检验标准不在于它能多有效地压制各种情感的表达,而在于是否给予了人们思考和表达的最广泛的自由,尽管有时这种结果会引起争论和愤怒。”

    first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.[1996年阅读1] 【例句精译】 假如我们想请朋友吃晚饭,我们就会准备菜谱、写购物单、决定先做哪道菜等,这样的筹划对于举行任何形式的宴请都是必不可少的。 【真题例句】 Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties--- he is not supposed to cook (n.②) his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports. [2006年翻译] 【例句精译】 像其他人类一样,普通科学家甚至在每天日常的工作中都遭遇到了道义上的问题——他不应该伪造他的实验、制造证据或改动他的报告。

     

    coverage  n.①新闻报导(范围);②保险项目 

    【真题例句】 With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage (①), as well as listen to it.[1996年阅读2] 【例句精译】 随着BBC(英国广播公司)全世界电视节目的开播,亚洲和美洲的数以百万计的人不仅可以听到它的新闻广播,而且也能看到它的电视新闻报道了。 

     

    crack  n.①裂纹,缝隙;②破裂声;v.①(使)开裂;②解决;③(get ing)开始

     【真题例句】 As the dome grows, it develops deep fissures (cracks) (n.①); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.[1998年阅读5] 【例句精译】 随着这个圆顶的增大,板块出现深深的裂缝。至少有几次,大陆可能会沿着其中的一些裂缝完全裂开,因此这个热点就引发了一个新的海洋的形成。 【真题例句】 Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked (v.①) rearview mirror and a faulty steering wheel.[1997年阅读5] 【例句精译】 因此,才会有人将货币政策的指导作用比作是驾驶一辆带有黑色挡风玻璃、破碎的后视镜及方向盘失灵的破汽车。 【真题例句】 So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking (v.③) about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients.[2005年新题型] 【例句精译】 所以,当官员们聚集在尼亚加拉瀑布城像往常一样不停的抱怨时,他们也应该在自己的权限范围内开始做些有利于他们的预算和病人的事情。

     craft n.①工艺,手艺,技巧;②飞机,飞船;③行业;v.精工制作 

    【真题例句】 The modern school that hails technology argues that such masters as Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and inventors such as Edison attached great importance to, and derived great benefit from, craft (n.①) information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments.[1994年翻译] 【例句精译】 推崇技术的现代学派认为,像伽利略、牛顿、麦克斯韦、爱因斯坦这样的大师以及像爱迪生这样的发明家都非常重视科学实验中使用的不同技术信息和技术设施,并从中受益颇深。 【真题例句】 The irony of the historian’ s craft (n.③) is that its practitioners always know that their efforts are but contributions to an unending process .[1999年翻译] 【例句精译】 具有讽刺意味的是,在历史学领域,历史学家都知道,他们所做的努力只不过是为一个永无止境的研究过程做一些贡献罢了。 

     

    Deliver v.①交付,递送;②发表,表达,陈述;③释放;④接生 

    【真题例句】 Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver (①) a continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers’ computer monitors.[1999年阅读2] 【例句精译】 最突出的例子是“定向投影”网络公司,该公司使用一种屏保系统,将大量最新的信息和广告不断地传送到用户的计算机显示器上。 【真题例句】 Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver (②) in a relaxed and unforced manner.[2002年阅读1] 【例句精译】 (练习幽默)包括一些很随便的、看上去是即兴的话,你可以用轻松的、不做作的方式把它们说出来。 

     

    digest v.消化;n.摘要,文摘 

    【真题例句】 70. This passage appears to be a digest (n.) of _____.[1996年阅读5]

    [A] a book review 【例句精译】 70、本文似乎是_____的摘要。  [A] 一个书评

     

     discipline  n.①纪律;②学科;③训练,训导;④惩罚,处罚;vt.①训练,训导;②惩罚,约束 

    【真题例句】 (72) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline (n.②) and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.[1999年翻译] 【例句精译】 (72) 人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。 【真题例句】 As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, “With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline (n.③), the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman.”[1996年阅读4] 【例句精译】 正如1853年访美的一个英国访问团成员所报道的那样,“由于有了学校彻底训练过的头脑,美国孩子迅速地成为技术熟练的工人。” 【真题例句】 The cruel discipline (n.④) of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other’s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 罢工和封厂的无情惩罚使双方学会了互相尊重对方的力量,理解公正谈判的价值。 

     

    dismiss  v.①免职,解雇,开除,解散;②.不理会,不考虑 

    【真题例句】 He dismisses (②) a lot of the work of reengineering consultants as mere rubbish —“the worst sort of ambulance-chasing.”[1998年阅读2] 【例句精译】 他对重组顾问们所作的大量工作不屑一顾,然为那些完全是垃圾——“典型的劳而无获”。 

     

    dock  n.船坞,码头;v.入坞,停靠码头 

    【真题例句】 He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m , then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m.[2006年新题型] 【例句精译】 有时他一次玩两个机器,整夜的玩,直到早上5点关门,然后娱乐场早上9点开门时再回去。

     

    doctor   n.①博士;②医生;v.伪造,篡改 

    【真题例句】 “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St.Peter. “Oh, that’s God,” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he’s a doctor (n.②).”[2002年阅读1] 【例句精译】 “这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得。“哦,那是上帝,”他回答说,“但有时也认为自己是一名医生。” 【真题例句】 Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties--- he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor (v.) his reports. [2006年翻译] 【例句精译】 像其他人类一样,普通科学家甚至在每天日常的工作中都遭遇到了道义上的问题——他不应该伪造他的实验、制造证据或改动他的报告。

     

     document n.公文,文献;vt.记载,证明 

    【真题例句】 Illustrated with an entertaining array of examples from both high and low culture, the trend that Mr. McWhorter documents (vt.) is unmistakable.[2005年阅读4] 【例句精译】 麦克沃特先生从上层和下层文化中列举了一系列有趣的例子,从中我们可以看出他所记录的这种趋势不可避免。

     

    draft n.草稿,草案,草图;v.起草,草拟

     【真题例句】 That group — the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) — has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a near-final draft (n.) of their recommendations.[1999年阅读4] 【例句精译】 这个名为“全国生物伦理道德顾问委员会”(NBAC)的小组一直在非常积极的工作,集思广益,并正在将其意见写成报告;在5月17日的一次会议上,委员们就几乎定稿的建议书取得了一致意见。 【真题例句】 “Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities,” says a law professor at Cornell Law School who helped draft (v.) the new guidelines.[1999年阅读1] 【例句精译】 康奈尔大学法学院一位参与起草新纲要的教授说,“重要的信息会淹没在细枝末节的汪洋大海之中”。

     

    dramatic   a.① 戏剧的,戏剧性的;②剧烈的,激进的;③显著的,引人注目的 

    【真题例句】 Yet, dramatic (①) instances of sudden forgetting can be seen to be adaptive.[1995年阅读5] 【例句精译】 然而戏剧性地突然遗忘某事可能会带来适应性方面的问题。 【真题例句】 As a physician, I know the most costly and dramatic (②) measures may be ineffective and painful.[2003年阅读 4] 【例句精译】 作为一名医生,我深知最昂贵和最激进的手段也可能是无效的和痛苦的; 【真题例句】 Straitford’s briefs don’t sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing, whereby agencies avoid dramatic (③) declarations on the chance they might be wrong.[2003年阅读1] 【例句精译】 Straitford公司的简报没有华盛顿许多其他公司常常提供的那种闪烁其词的预报,其他公司这么做是为了避免万一预报不准备人抓住把柄。 

     

    element .①元素;②组成部分;③人员,分子 

    【真题例句】 They are different (46:in that) their elements (①) are arranged differently, and each vitamin (47:performs) one or more specific functions in the body.[1996年完形] 【例句精译】 它们的不同之处在于每种维生素内部的元素排列不同,并且每种维生素在人体内都有一种或多种特殊作用。 【真题例句】 Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element (②) in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 对资本与企业的如此大规模的非个人操纵大大地增加了作为一个阶级的持股人的数量及其地位的重要性。这个阶层作为国计民生的一部分,不仅从地产和土地所有者的责任中脱离出来,而且几乎相应地也从企业管理的责任中脱离出来。 【真题例句】 The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element (③) and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 通过聘用大量专业人员来适应新时代的技术要求,并防止了效率的降低,而在过去这种低效率曾使得许多旧式家族企业在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二、三代手中破产倒闭。

     

    engage v.①(in)从事,忙于;②(to)与……订婚;③聘用;④吸引 

    【真题例句】 Nevertheless Williams’s suit charged that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling” intentionally worked to “lure” him to “engage (①) in conduct against his will” well.[2006年新题型] 【例句精译】 然而威廉姆斯还是控告娱乐场,明知道他“不可救药地赌博上瘾”还故意“诱惑”他“违背他自己的意愿参加赌博”。 【真题例句】 The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging (③) a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 通过聘用大量专业人员来适应新时代的技术要求,并防止了效率的降低,而在过去这种低效率曾使得许多旧式家族企业在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二、三代手中破产倒闭。 【真题例句】 To see an animal in pain is enough, for most, to engage (④) sympathy.[1997年翻译] 【例句精译】 对于大多数人来说,看见一个动物在受苦,足以引起他们同情。 

     

    fabricate [5fAbrikeitv.①捏造,编造(谎言,借口等);②建造,制造 

    【真题例句】 (63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating (①) their data. [2004年翻译] 【例句精译】 (63) 这些新近被描述的语言和得到充分研究的欧洲和东南亚地区的语言往往差别显著,以至于有些学者甚至指责Boas和Sapir编造了材料。 

     

    fair a.①公平的,合理的;②相当的,尚好的;③晴朗的;④金发的;n.集市,交易会,博览会 

    【真题例句】 To be fair (a.①), this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American.[1997年阅读2]

    【例句精译】 平心而论,人们对加拿大人也有这样的评论,因而,应当认为这是北美的普遍现象。 【真题例句】 In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs (n.) and at the industrial fairs in major cities.[1996年阅读4] 【例句精译】 在美国,奖励新发明的大量奖品在乡村集市和大城市的工业博览会上颁发。

     

     fashion  n.①流行式样(或货品),风尚,风气;②样子,方式;vt.形成,制作,塑造 

    【真题例句】 More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion (n.①), companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another.[1999年阅读2] 【例句精译】 最近,在网络已被证明不是一时的时髦之后,公司间便开始(在网上)交易产品和服务。 【真题例句】 His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied reengineering in a mechanistic fashion (n.②), chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.[1998年阅读2] 【例句精译】 他的同事迈克·比尔说,太多的企业以机械的方式进行重组,降低了成本却没有考虑到长远效益。 【真题例句】 If the Administration won’t take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning (vt.) conservation measures.[2005年阅读2] 【例句精译】 假如政府当局没有采取司法行动,议会就应该协助来推广环保措施。

     

    feature [5fi:tFE] n.①特征,特色;②(报纸或杂志)特写;③容貌,面貌;v.给显著地位 

    【真题例句】 The complementary coastlines and certain geological features (n.①) that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined.[1998年阅读5] 【例句精译】 但互相吻合的海岸线和某些似乎跨越海洋的地质特征表明两个大陆曾经连在一起。 

    【真题例句】 70. This passage appears to be a digest of _____.[1996年阅读5]

    [C] a magazine feature (n.②) 【例句精译】 70、本文似乎是_____的摘要。 [C] 一份杂志特写 

    【真题例句】 68. Kitcher’s book is intended to _____.[1996年阅读5]

    [B] expose the true features (n.③) of creationists 【例句精译】 68、肯切尔的书旨在_____。 

    [B] 披露所谓科学创世论者的真实面目 

    【真题例句】 Our magazines feature (v.) beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes.[2006年阅读4] 【例句精译】 我们的杂志突出刊登满面春风的名人和美满幸福的家庭。

     

     field n.①田,田野;②运动场;③领域,方面;④实地,野外 

    【真题例句】 The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take the most shots at the goal — and so it goes with innovation in any field (③) of activity.[1994年阅读5] 【例句精译】 关键在于得分最多者正是那些射门次数最多的球员,而任何领域的创新活动都是如此。 【真题例句】 Anthropology is a field-study (④) oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis.[2003年翻译] 【例句精译】 人类学是一个以实地研究为方向的学科,该学科在研究中常常大量使用对比分析方法。 

     

    figure n.①体形;②数字;③图形;④人物;v.out)算出,估计,推测 

    【真题例句】 In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates that figure (n.②) will be 75 percent.[1994年阅读4] 【例句精译】 国家癌症研究所估计,到2000年存活率将升至75%。 【真题例句】 Americans no longer expect public figures (n.④), whether in speech or in writing, to command the English language with skill and gift.Nor do they aspire to such command themselves.[2005年阅读4] 【例句精译】 美国人不再期望公众人物在演讲或写作文章之时可以巧妙地、富有天分地使用英语了,而他们自己本身也不奢望自己能够做到这一点。 

     

    finance  n.①财政,金融;②资金;v.为……提供资金 

    【真题例句】 This also involves the agreements between European countries for the creation of a European bank for Television Production which, on the model of the European Investments Bank, will handle the finances (n.②) necessary for production costs.[2005年翻译]

    【例句精译】 这也要求欧洲国家达成共识,并效仿能解决生产所需资金的欧洲投资银行的模式,来创立一个欧洲节目制作资源库。 

    【真题例句】 The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain’s former colony.They financed (v.) them.Immigrant Americans built them.Guess who owns them now? The Americans.[2001年阅读2] 【例句精译】 英国人、德国人、荷兰人和法国人都在这个前英国殖民地投资。他们提供资金,美洲移民建造。想想看,现在谁拥有这一切?美国人。

     firm a.坚固的,稳固的;坚决的,坚定的;n.公司,商号 

    【真题例句】 It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.

    【例句精译】 广告直接有助于商品以合理的价格销售,由此建立稳固的国内市场,并使商品能以富有竞争力的价格出口。 

    【真题例句】 Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers.

    【例句精译】 许多旧式公司被有限责任公司所取代,由领薪经理层构成其管理机构。 

    horizon  n.①地平线;②眼界,见识;③(思想等的)范围,限度;④(on the ~)即将发生 

    【真题例句】 According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons (③) of scientific knowledge.[1994年翻译] 【例句精译】 新学派科学家们认为,在拓展科学知识的范围方面技术是被忽视的力量。 【真题例句】 For many of us, the “cashless society” is not on the horizon (④) — it’s already here.[1994年阅读2] 【例句精译】 对于我们很多人来说,“无现金的社会”不是即将来临,而是已经到来。

     

     host  n.①主人;②主持人;③东道主;④(a  of)许多;v.①举行;②主持;③主办 

    【真题例句】 In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host (n.④) of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional.[1999年阅读3] 【例句精译】 无论如何,基本的计算机技能只是对成为某种专业技术人员所需的各种实际技能的补充。 【真题例句】 (71) There will be television chat shows hosted (v.②) by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.[2001年翻译] 【例句精译】 (71) 届时,将出现由机器人主持的电视访谈节目以及装有污染监控器的汽车,一旦这些汽车排污超标(违规),监控器就会使其停驶。 

     

    immediate a.①立即的,即时的;②直接的,最接近的

     【真题例句】 But a decision among projects none of which has immediate (②) utility is more difficult.[1996年翻译] 【例句精译】 但是在没有直接效用的项目中做抉择就难多了。

     

    import  v.进口,输入;n.①进口,输入;②[pl.]进口商品,进口物资;③重要性 

    【真题例句】 On the other hand, oil-importing (v.) emerging economies — to which heavy industry has shifted — have become more energy-intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.[2002年阅读3] 【例句精译】 另一方面,进口石油的新兴国家由于转向了重工业,消耗能量更大,因此可能会受到石油危机的强烈影响。 

    【真题例句】 The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import (n.①) bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP.That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980.[2002年阅读3] 【例句精译】 国际经合组织在最近一期的《经济展望》中估计,如果油价持续一年维持在22美元左右,与1998年的13美元一桶相比,这也只会使发达国家的石油进口在支出上增加GDP的0.25%~0.5%。这还不到1974年或1980年收入减少部分的1/4。 

    【真题例句】 The full import (n.③) may take a while to sink in.[1997年阅读1] 【例句精译】 该法案的重要性可能需要一段时间才能为人们所理解和接受。 

     

     

    knowledge n.①知识,学识;②知道,了解 

    【真题例句】 “Being learned in some branch of human knowledge (①) in one thing, living in public and industrious thoughts”, as Emersion would say, “is something else.”[2006年翻译] 【例句精译】 正如爱默生说的“在人类知识的一些分支中学习是一回事,在公众的和勤勉的思想中生存就是另外一回事了。”

    【真题例句】 The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge (②) of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good.[1996年阅读3] 【例句精译】 这种股东不了解他们所持股的公司里工人们的生活、思想和需求。他们对劳资关系也不会产生积极的影响。 

     

    lean  v.①倾斜,屈身;②倚,靠,依赖;

    a.①瘦的,无脂肪的;②精干的,效率高的;③贫瘠的

    【真题例句】 They all seem to look alike (though they come from all over) --lean (a.①), pointed, dedicated faces, wearing jeans and sandals, eating their buns and bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre to buy the 20 seats and 80 standing-room tickets held for the sleepers and sold to them when the box office opens at 10:30 a.m.[2006年阅读2] 【例句精译】 他们看起来都一个样(虽然他们从各个地方而来)——瘦削、率直、专注的脸庞,穿着牛仔裤和便鞋,吃着小圆面包,在剧场外的石板上过夜,以便能买得起20张座票和80张站票,这些票都是为那些睡觉的人准备的,并且在票房第二天上午10点半开始售票时就卖给他们。 

    【真题例句】 Friedman relies on a lean (a.②) staff of 20 in Austin.[2003年阅读1] 【例句精译】 弗里德曼在奥斯汀市只有20人的精干职员队伍。 

     

    lesson  n.功课,课程;教训 

    【真题例句】 The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful.[1998年阅读1] 【例句精译】 建造大坝的教训是:大的未必总是好的。 

     

    local [5lEukEl] a.①地方的,当地的;②局部的 

    【真题例句】 The townsfolk don’t see it this way and local (①) council does not contribute directly to the subsidy of the Royal Shakespeare Company.[2006年阅读2] 【例句精译】 但是市民们不这样认为并且当地的理事会也不会直接给皇家莎士比亚公司提供补贴。 

    【真题例句】 Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local (②) studies in the old way.[2001年阅读1] 【例句精译】 另一方面,业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。 

     

    locate v.①查找;②使……坐落于,位于 

    【真题例句】 Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machine-readable files, and to program computers to locate (①) specific information.[1995年阅读3] 【例句精译】 计算机技术使人们可以把大量的数据储存到机器可读的文件里,还能通过计算机编程找到某一信息。 

    【真题例句】 65. We can see from the available statistics that _____.[1998年阅读4]

    [B] the top 10 states in growth rate of population were all located (②) in the West 【例句精译】 65、从得到的统计资料,我们可以看出_____。 [B] 人口增长率排名前十位的州都位于西部地区 

  • 2016考研英语一的完形填空主题是关于“柬埔寨青年的结婚习俗”,内容好理解,题目也很简单,如果有同学最后不做而靠蒙的话,可就有点可惜了!

    下面以2016年真题为例,为考生详细解析完形填空:

    Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

     

    In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1__those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__ a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3__the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may take the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. __4__, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5__ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

    The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Par--ts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting,__9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and __10__a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless  the __11__.  Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may__12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

    Divorce is legal and easy to __14__, but not common. Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up.  The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__the woman must wait ten months.

    1. 1. A.by way of  B. with regard to  C. on behalf of  D. as well as
      2.  A. decide on  B. provide for C. compete with D. adapt to
      3.  A. close  B. arrange C. renew D. postpone
      4.  A. In theory B. Above all C. In time D. For example
      5.  A. Unless B. Less C. After D. Although
      6.  A. into B. within C. from D. through
      7.  A. or B. since C. but D. so
      8.  A. test B. copy C. recite     D. create
      9.  A. folding B. piling C. wrapping D. tying
      10.  A. passing B. lighting C. hiding D. serving
      11.  A. association B. meeting C. collection D. union
      12.  A. deal B. part   C. grow D. live
      13.  A. whereas B. until C. for  D. if
      14.  A. avoid B. follow C. challenge D. obtain
      15.  A. isolated B. persuaded   C. viewed D. exposed
      16.  A. wherever B. whatever C. whenever D. however
      17.  A. changed B. brought C. shaped D. pushed
      18.  A. invested B. divided C. donated D. withdrawn
      19.  A. warms B. clears  C. shows D. breaks
      20.  A. while B. so that C. once D. in that

     

    1.   [标准答案] [D]as well as
      [考点分析] 本题考察逻辑关系

    [选项分析] 因为考察逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:文章身处大环境not only…..but also之中,这是一个明显的并列关系,表示“不仅……而且……”该空与前一句“his parents and his friends”也是并列关系,表示“与他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关” 所以答案只能是D. as well as.

    1. A. by way of通过B. with regard to关于 C. on behalf of 代表
    2.  [标准答案] [A]decide on
      [考点分析] 上下文语义
         [选项分析] 根据该句的主语a young man与宾语a likely spouse的关系,答案只能是A. decide on 决定。表示自己决定自己的对象。B. provide for 为……提供准备 C. compete with与……竞争 D. adapt to适用

     

    1.  [标准答案] [B]arrange
      [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析
      [选项分析] 该句意思为,他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母_____相关事务。四个选项中,A. close 关闭 C renew 更新;恢复 D postpone“推迟”,语义不正确,只有B arrange安排是符合语境。

    2.  [标准答案] [A]In theory
      [考点分析] 上下文语义
      [选项分析]逻辑判断题。主要是看前后两句的含义,前面是说“他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排相关事务,或者几乎不参与,完全让父母选择自己的对象。” 空格后面说“女方可以拒绝她父母所选择的对象。”这两句之间没有举例说明的关系,且有一个may,更证明A. In theory的正确性。而其他选项 B. Above all最重要的是, C. In time 准时 D. For example举例,均不符合题意。

    3.  [标准答案] [C]After
      [考点分析] 上下文语义

       [选项分析]根据下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other……”知道,只有对象选择好后,父母才会去调查研究对方的背景。所以只有after才对。其他选项A. Unless 除非,否则 B. Lest 以免,唯恐 D. Although 尽管 都不符合题意。

     

    6.[标准答案] [A]into
       [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词词义辨析
       [选项分析] 这里主要是看marry与相关介词的固定搭配。这里marry into就是指嫁到,而其他选项均没有这层含义。

     

    1. [标准答案] [C]but
      [考点分析] 逻辑关系题
      [选项分析]根据上文,说传统的婚礼时间跨度很长,但是到了1980s, 婚礼只持续一天半。所以与前文发生转变。因此要选择but转折关系。


    8. [标准答案] [C]recite
        [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
        [选项分析]空格处需要填一个动词,和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配,C选项recite 为背诵的意思,与所给短语搭配最为合理,译为“为祈祷者做祈福”。


    9. [标准答案] [D]tying
        [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
        [选项分析] 本题需要根据上下文语义分析,空格处需要搭配后文“棉花线头”,纵观四个选项[A]折叠
    [B]堆积 [C]包裹 [D]系上,根据选项含义,只有D和后文的“棉花线头”搭配最为合理。


    10.[标准答案] [A]passing
        [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
        [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]传递[B]点亮 [C]隐藏 [D]服务,原文空格需要填写一个动词与后文“around a circle”来搭配,译为“将蜡烛传一圈”,故[A]传递为正确选项。

    11.[标准答案] [D]union
    [考点分析] 名词词义辨析
    [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]协会,社团[B]会议,会面 [C]集合 [D]结合。本句语义为“这些受尊敬的夫妻祈祷…”根据语境,结婚是一种夫妻二人的结合,因此,选项[D]结合更符合语境。

    1. [标准答案] [D]live
      [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
      [选项分析] 本题比较简单。根据语义“根据传统,新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家,与父母____一年”根据语境,应为[D]居住为最佳答案。

    13.[标准答案] [B]until
         [考点分析] 时间逻辑关系
        [选项分析] 根据原文,“_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子” [A]然而[B]直到 [C]为 [D]如果 结合语境,[B]直到最符合原文语境,搭配最为合理。

     

    14.[标准答案] [D]obtain

        [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

    [选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common.该句句意为离婚是合法的,且相对容易____. A.avoid 避免B.follow 跟随C.chanllenge挑战,质疑D.obtain获得。这里出现and,所以对于离婚这件事不可能是避免或是挑战,但是跟随和离婚之间语义不符,但是获得离婚(的批准)是可以的。选D.

     

    1. [标准答案] [D] viewed

    [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

    [选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval.离婚的人…一些不赞同。在段首,已经注明离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准,但是不常见。这说明离婚在现实中肯定是不太受到人们的欢迎的。而接下来这句就说离婚的人…一些不赞同。再看选项:A.isolated孤立 B.persuaded劝说C.viewed看做 D. exposed接触,受到…的影响  C选项固定搭配被认为,放进。

     

    1. [标准答案] [B]whatever

       [考点分析] 语法

       [选项分析Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, 17个空对应的都是动词,所以该句意思为:夫妇双方保有…财产,这个财产是他或她…(动词)进婚姻的。 结合选项A whenever“无论何地;任何(地方)=any place where(定从)”。B whatever“无论什么;任何(东西)=anything that/any+N that”。C whenever无论何时;任何(时间=any time when)D however 无论如何;无论多么 。根据语义,这里应该不是让步的关系,而且填的这个词还要能修饰property。因此,选择B =retains any property that he or she ….

     

    1. [标准答案] [B]brought

       [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

       [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage,结合选项A changed“改变”。B brought “带来”。C shaped“形成” D pushed“推,逼迫”。结合语境只有B符合,把财产带入婚姻。

     

    1. [标准答案] [B]divided

       [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

       [选项分析] …and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally.结合选项A invested投资.[B]divided平分 [C] donated 捐赠[D]withdrawn撤出,提取。根据语义应该是共同财产被(夫妻双方)平分。

     

    1. [标准答案] [C]shows

    [考点分析] 动词固定搭配

    [选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up.  该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚,但是性别偏见…。结合选项A. warm(up)加热 B.clear(up) 变晴C.show (up) 显现D.break(up)分裂,分开;,显然C是正确选项。

     

    1. [标准答案] [A]while

    [选项分析] 上下文语义

    [考点分析] 很明显的两类人的对比比较关系。只能选择while.

  • Section  Use of English

    Directions:

    Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

    Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are _____ the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer’s piece in the Science Times on Tuesday. Fruit flies that were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly ______ to live shorter lives. This suggests that ____ bulbs burn longer, that there is an _____ in not being too terrifically bright.

    Intelligence, it _____ out, is a high-priced option. It takes more upkeep. Burns more fuel and is slow _____ the starting line because it depends on learning – a ____ process - instead of instinct. Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they’ve apparently learned is when to _____.

    Is there an adaptive value to ______ intelligence? That’s the question behind this new research. I like it. Instead of casting a wistful glance _____ at all the species we’ve left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real ____ of our own intelligence might be. This is ______ the mind of every animal I’ve ever met.—

    Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would _____ on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, _____ , is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning. We believe that ____ animals ran the labs, they would test us to ______ the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain, They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really ______, not merely how much of it there is. ______. They would hope to study a _____ question; Are humans actually aware of the world they live in?_____ the result are inconclusive.

    1. [A]Suppose        [B]Consider       [C]Observe        [D]Imagine
    2. [A]tended         [B]feared          [C]happened       [D]threatened
    3. [A] thinner        [B]stabler          [C]lighter         [D]dimmer
    4. [A]tendency       [B]advantage       [C]inclination      [D]priority
    5. [A]insists on       [B]sums up        [C]turns out        [D]puts forward
    6. [A]off            [B]behind         [C]over            [D]along
    7. [A]incredible      [B]spontaneous     [C]inevitable        [D]gradual
    8. [A]fight          [B]doubt           [C]stop            [D]think
    9. [A]invisible       [B]limit           [C]indefinite        [D]different
    10. [A]upward        [B]forward        [C]afterward       [D]backward

    11.[A]features      [B]influences      [C]results      [D]costs

    12.[A]outside      [B]on      [C]by      [D]across

    13.[A]deliver      [B]carry      [C]perform      [D]apply

    14.[A]by chance      [B] in contrast      [C]as usual      [D]for instance

    15.[A]if      [B]unless      [C]as      [D]lest

    16.[A]moderate      [B]overcome      [C]determine      [D]reach

    17.[A]at      [B]for      [C]after      [D]with

    18.[A]Above all      [B]After all      [C]However      [D]Otherwise

    19.[A]fundamental      [B]comprehensive      [C]equivalent      [D]hostile

    20.[A]By accident      [B]In time      [C]So far      [D]Better still

    1. B  本题考查动词,后面的宾语是“the fruit-fly experiments described…”,suppose假设, observe观察,imagine想象,consider考虑,代入文中表示“考虑已经被描述出来的实验”,符合语境。
    2. A  happen to碰巧,fear to唯恐,be threatened to被恐吓。tend to do表示“有…倾向,往往”,文中表示比较聪明的果蝇往往寿命较短。
    3. D  lighter更轻的,thinner更瘦的,stabler更稳定的,dimmer比较暗淡的,本句是前一句推出的结论,即由“果蝇越聪明寿命越短”推出“灯泡越暗使用时间越长”。
    4. B  由前半句“灯泡越暗使用时间越长”推出“这是不特别亮的灯泡的一个优点”。tendency倾向,advantage优势,inclination倾向,priority优先权。
    5. C  turn out证明是,insist on坚持,sum up总结,put forward提出。
    6. A  本题考查介词,off表示离开。代入文中表示离开起点时。
    7. D  incredible难以置信的,spontaneous自发的,inevitable不可避免的,gradual渐进的。学习是一个渐进的过程,所以选gradual。
    8. C  大量的物种会学习,但它们首先学会的是知道什么时候停止学习,与上文的例子灯泡呼应。四个选项中,fight表示斗争,doubt表示怀疑,stop表示停止,think表示思考,正确答案为C。
    9. B  invisible看不见的,indefinite不确定的,这两个选项意思不符合,排除。different不同的,limited有限的。因为所有物种的智力都是有限的,所以limited符合文意。
    10. D  cast a glance backward“回顾”,固定搭配。
    11. A  feature特征,influence影响,result结果,cost代价。这里的意思是动物们想知道人类的intelligence有什么特征,如下文所提到的 limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain等等。
    12. B  on the mind of“在…思想上”,by the mind“通过思考”,outside和across不与mind的搭配。
    13. C  选项中perform能与experiments 搭配,表示“做实验”。deliver递送,carry运送, apply应用。
    14. D  前一句提到experiments,本句提到一个具体的实验,所以选for instance例如。by chance偶然,in contrast相反,as usual照常。
    15. A  由后半句中they would test us to可推测本句使用了虚拟语气,选项中if可以引导虚拟条件句。unless除非,as正如,lest唯恐。
    16. C  本题考查动词。所填动词表明实验的目的,并且所填动词的宾语是limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain,选项中determine“确定”符合题意,并与下文的decide相呼应。moderate适中的,overcome克服,reach达到。
    17. B  本题考查介词,四个选项中for表示表示目的,这个句子的正常句序是intelligence in humans is really for what。
    18. A  本题考查逻辑关系。这个句子位于段末,显然起到总结性的作用。四个选项中,above all最重要,after all毕竟,however然而,otherwise否则,故选above all。
    19. A  本题考查形容词,修饰question 。fundamental基本的,comprehensive全面的,equivalent相等的,hostile敌对的。由句后问题的内容可推出这是一个最基本和重要的问题,所以选fundamental。
    20. C  本题考查副词。空前说“想研究这个问题”,空后说“结果还不确定”。四个选项中,by accident“偶然”,in time“及时”,so far“到目前为止”,better still“更好的是”,只有so far符合语意。

    Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:

    Read the following four texts, Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.

    Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

    Text1

    Habit is a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative connotation.

    So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks.

    All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, she says. Researchers in the late 1960 covered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways; analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At puberty, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.

    The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system — that anyone can do anything,” explains M.J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book “This Year I Will…” and Ms. Markova’s business partner. “That’s a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness. Knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.” This is where developing new habits comes in.

    1. The view of Wordsworth habit is claimed by being_______.
    2. usual    B. familiar    C. mechanical    D. changeable

    21.C  文章第二句中提到我们在无意识的状态下就能形成,使人们的头脑处于自动导航,放松地进入一种无意识的惯性当中。从这个表述中可以看出习惯的形成过程完全是一种无意状态下的机械活动。

     

    1. The researchers have discovered that the formation of habit can be________.
    2. predicted    B. regulated    C. traced    D. guided

    22.D  第二段第二句当中指出当人们有意识的培养新的习惯时,我们就创造出一种相关的轨迹,甚至是全新的脑细胞,这可以使我们的思想进入一个创新的轨道上。由此可见研究人员认为习惯的形成是可以被引导的。

    1. “Ruts” (in line one, paragraph 3) has closest meaning to__________.
    2. tracks    B. series    C. characteristics    D. connections

    23.A  tracks痕迹, series系列, characteristics特点, connections联系。原文提到不要试图摆脱你的旧习惯;一旦这个过程进入大脑,它们就会留在脑中。根据上下文逻辑最合上下文语境的为A选项。

    1. Ms, Markova’s comments suggest that the practice of standard testing _______?
    2. prevents new habits form being formed
    3. no longer emphasizes commonness
    4. maintains the inherent American thinking mode
    5. complies with the American belief system

    24.A  文章最后一段提到standardized testing意味着很少人inherently用创新思维。选项B、C、D正好跟文章意思相反,故选A选项。

    1. Ryn most probably agree that_______.
    2. ideas are born of a relaxing mind
    3. innovativeness could be taught
    4. decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas
    5. curiosity activates creative minds

    25.A  最后一段提到知道你擅长什么然后多做就能做得很好。A选项轻松的思维才能产生好的想法是意思最相近的。

     

    Text 2

    It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom – or at least confirm that he’s the kid’s dad. All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore – and another $120 to get the results.

    More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits. More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests directly to the public, ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2500.

    Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing, which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and latest rage a many passionate genealogists- and supports businesses that offer to search for a family’s geographic roots.

    Most tests require collecting cells by webbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA.

    But some observers are skeptical, “There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing.” says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist. He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back. Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father’s line or mitochondrial DNA, which a passed down only from mothers, This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents.

    Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. Databases used by some companies don’t rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects. This means that a DNA database may differ depending on the company that processes the results. In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.

    1. In paragraphs 1 and 2, the text shows PTK’s ________.

    [A]easy availability

    [B]flexibility in pricing

    [C]successful promotion

    [D]popularity with households

    26.A  从第一二段文章表明PTK很容易买到。文中第一二段有多处体现,首段最后一句话“只需花30美元在地方药房作亲子鉴定……”。第二段第一句我们可以看到“自从去年不需要处方即购可买之后,己经超过6万人购买了PTK”。甚至从第二段整段我们可以看出:B项关于鉴定价格浮动只在第二段最后一句有所体现。C项文中未提到。D项属过度推断。

     

    1. PTK is used to __________.

    [A]locate one’s birth place

    [B]promote genetic research

    [C]identify parent-child kinship

    [D]choose children for adoption

    27.C  PTK是用来鉴定亲子关系的。从文中第三段可以看到“被收养的孩子可以通过亲子鉴定找到他具有血缘关系的亲属”。A选项比较具有迷惑性,从第三段后半句我们可以看出“PTK最近惹怒了很多谱系学家,他们支持用PTK来探寻一个家族的祖藉”。可以看出PTK没有主要被用来寻找一个人的出生地。选项B,D文中未提及。

     

    1. Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to ________.

    [A]trace distant ancestors

    [B]rebuild reliable bloodlines

    [C]fully use genetic information

    [D]achieve the claimed accuracy

    28.D  持怀疑态度的观察者认为祖先鉴定没有达到声称的准确性。从题干信息我们可以将它定位到文中第五段第一句我们可以看出:那些正在做祖先鉴定的人们所宣扬的(祖先鉴定)精确度其实是错的。这句话是对这一段的概括,ABC三个选项都只是它的细节之一。因此,D选项正确。

     

    1. In the last paragraph, a problem commercial genetic testing faces is _________.

    [A]disorganized data collection

    [B]overlapping database building

    29.A  最后一段中商业基因鉴定面临的一个问题是数椐收集的紊乱。从最后一段第二句我们可以看出“一些公司使用的数据库并不依赖于系统的数据收集而是把不同研究机构收集的信息合在一起。这就意味着处理数据的公司不同,所用DNA数据库也会不同。”文中并未提及数据是否重合,B无根椐。C、D文中没有体现。

     

    1. An appropriate title for the text is most likely to be _______.

    [A] fors and againsts of DNA testing

    [B] DNA testing and its problems

    [C] DNA testing outside the lab

    [D] lies behind DNA testing

    30.B  本文最合适的题目应是DNA测试及它存在的问题。A选项中“DNA测试的赞成与反对”从文中我们看不到作者有明显赞成DNA测试的倾向,C选项,文中没有特别强调实验室内外的问题。D选项“DNA测试背后的谎言”,作者只是客观地提出了DNA测试存在的不准确性问题,但并没有指明是哪些人的谎言。

    Text 3

    The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians alike. Progress in both areas is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies. However, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong. We are fortunate that it is because new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radical higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.

    Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States. Not long ago, with the country entering a recessing and Japan at its pre-bubble peak. The U.S. workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of primary cause of the poor U.S. economic performance. Japan was, and remains, the global leader in automotive-assembly productivity. Yet the research revealed that the U.S. factories of Honda Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese counter e pants a result of the training that U.S. workers received on the job.

    More recently, while examing housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry’s work.

    What is the real relationship between education and economic development? We have to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don’t force it. After all, that’s how education got started. When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn’t have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food. Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.

    As education improved humanity’s productivity potential, they could in turn afford more education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance, Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn’t constrain the ability of the developing world’s workforce to substantially improve productivity for the forested future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn’t developing more quickly there than it is.

    1. The author holds in paragraph I that the important of education in poor countries _______.

    [A]is subject groundless doubts

    [B]has fallen victim of bias

    [C]is conventional downgraded

    [D]has been overestimated

    31.D  在第一段作者认为在贫困国家教育的重要性被高估了。作者在首段指出“传统的观点认为在贫困国家对促进经济的快速发展而言,教育是极应优先考虑的要素之一,这是种错误的看法。”教育的优先性和教育的重要性实际上是一个意思,而既然文中说优先教育是种错误的看法,由此可推出教育的重要性被过度的重视了即被高估了,因此D正确。

     

    1. It is stated in paragraph 1 that construction of a new education system _________.

    [A]challenges economists and politicians

    [B]takes efforts of generations

    [C]demands priority from the government

    [D]requires sufficient labor force

    32.B  第一段表明建立新的教育体系需要几代人的努力。在第一段作者主要谈论了靠优先发展教育来促进经济发展是错误的看法,而世界各国的工人经过了劳动培训可以获取高产量进而带来更高的生活水平。解答细节题时同样明显背离中心的选项可首先排除,即先可排除A、C。在依据第一段的倒数第二句可知:通过教育体系来使足够多的人能提高经济能力将需要两三代人。由此可知建立教育体系在当前是不可能,而这种建立需要几代人的努力才能实现。

     

    1. A major difference between the Japanese and U.S workforces is that _________.

    [A]the Japanese workforce is better disciplined

    [B]the Japanese workforce is more productive

    [C]the U.S workforce has a better education

    [D]the U.S workforce is more organize

    33.B  日本和美国劳动力的主要区别是日本的劳动力更多产。解答本题可用运排除法。依据文章的第二段,美国劳动力受教育程度差遭到嘲笑并被认为是其经济表现差的原因之一。美国工人接受了职业培训后,本田、丰田的美国公司才达到了日本95%的产量,由此可知日本工人的生产力比美国工人的生产力高。从文中可知,美国劳动力受教育程度差是个事实也是美国经济表现差的重要原因,由此可排除不符合文意的C选项;而A、D的信息在文中未提及,由此可得出只有B正确,而依据文意,既然日本保持了汽车产量的全球领先地位,自然日本的劳动力比美国的劳力更多产也验证了B为正确答案。

     

    1. The author quotes the example of our ancestors to show that education emerged _______.

    [A]when people had enough time

    [B]prior to better ways of finding food

    [C]when people on longer went hung

    [D]as a result of pressure on government

    34.A  推理判断题。意为:作者引用了我们祖先的例子来表明当人们有了充裕的时间时,教育才出现。依据文章倒数第二段的最后两句可知,作者举出了我们祖先的例子是来论证最后一句话得出的观点:只有当人们有了更高产的获得食物的方式时,人们才有时间做其它事情。由此可推知,教育是获得食物以外的其它事情,而受教育的前提是人们有剩余时间,由此可知A为正确答案。

     

    1. According to the last paragraph, development of education _____________.

    [A]results directly from competitive environments

    [B]does not depend on economic performance

    [C]follows improved productivity

    [D]cannot afford political changes

    35.C  教育的发展受约于产量的提高。文章在最后一段针对上文讨论的教育和生产的关系做出了总结。在本段作者明确指出缺乏正规的教育并不能限制发展极大提高产量的世界劳动力,而反之,对提高产量的限制得以解释了为什么教育发展得没有那么快。由此可见,提高产量优先于发展教育,故C为正确答案。而A,D的表达不符合文章的中心;B项的意思和原文相反。

    Text 4

    The most thoroughly studied in the history of the new world are the ministers and political leaders of seventeenth-century New England. According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was “So much important attached to intellectual pursuits”. According to many books and articles, New England’s leaders established the basic themes and preoccupations of an unfolding Dominant Puritan tradition in American intellectual life.

    To take this approach to the New Englanders normally means to start with the Puritans’ theological innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church-important subjects that we may not neglect. But in keeping with our examination of southern intellectual life, we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture adjusting to new world circumstances. The New England colonies were the scenes of important episodes in the pursuit of widely understood ideals of civility and virtuosity.

    The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in England, besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade after 1629. There were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston, There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness.

    We should not forget, however, that most New Englanders were less well educated while few crafts men or farmers let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed. Their thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality. A tailor named John Dane, who emigrated in the late 1630s, left an account of his reasons for leaving England that is filled with signs. Sexual confusion, economic frustrations, and religious hope-all name together in a decisive moment when he opened the Bible, told his father the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words, “come out from among them, touch no unclean thing, and I will be your God and you shall be my people.” One wonders what Dane thought of the careful sermons explaining the Bible that he heard in puritan churched.

    Meanwhile, many settles had slighter religious commitments than Dane’s, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the New world for religion. “Our main end was to catch fish.”

    1. The author notes that in the seventeenth-century New England _________.

    [A]Puritan tradition dominated political life.

    [B]intellectual interests were encouraged.

    [C]Politics benefited much from intellectual endeavors.

    [D]intellectual pursuits enjoyed a liberal environment.

    36.B  文章第一段提到殖民时期的美国没有哪个地方像新英格兰一样有so much importance attached to intellectual pursuits,新英格兰政府在精神生活中建立themes and preoccupations,故B为正确选项。A选项为原文的篡改。C选项从原文的表述中无法推出。D选项文章中没有提到“对于知识的追求享有自由的环境”。

     

    1. It is suggested in paragraph 2 that New Englanders _________.

    [A]experienced a comparatively peaceful early history.

    [B]brought with them the culture of the Old World

    [C]paid little attention to southern intellectual life

    [D]were obsessed with religious innovations

    37.B  第二段中暗示出新到达英格兰的人带着旧世界的文化,B为正确选项,第二段第二句提到,we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture……,选项中的New Englanders对应文中的Puritans, brought with them the culture of the Old World对应该文章中的carriers of European culture,故此选项为此句中的同义替换。

     

    1. The early ministers and political leaders in Massachusetts Bay __________.

    [A]were famous in the New World for their writing

    [B]gained increasing importance in religious affairs

    [C]abandoned high positions before coming to the New World

    [D]created a new intellectual atmosphere in New England

    38.D  早期到达马萨诸赛海湾的牧师和政治领导人为新英格兰创造了新的知识环境。对应第三段中的最后一句话There men wrote and published extensively… giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness. A选项中in the new world缩小了原文所表述的范围,B选项在文章中没有提到,C选项不够全面。帮D为正确答案。

     

    1. The story of John Dane shows that less well-educated New Englanders were often ____.

    [A]influenced by superstitions

    [B]troubled with religious beliefs

    [C]puzzled by church sermons

    [D]frustrated with family earnings

    39.A  由文章第四段可知,观点为their thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality,所以在四个选项中只有A选项和文章的观点最为符合。

     

    1. The text suggests that early settlers in New England _________.

    [A]were mostly engaged in political activities

    [B]were motivated by an illusory prospect

    [C]came from different backgrounds.

    [D]left few formal records for later reference

    40.C  从文章中可以看出到新英格兰的早期的定居者有政客、牧师、裁缝,由此可见早期的定居者背景多种多样。故选项C正确。

     

    Part B

    Directions:

    Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (41-45), choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

    Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41._________.

    American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s, Morgan, along with Tylor, was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies. 42._________.

    In the early 1900s in North America, German-born American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology.

    1. ___________.

    Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture.

    1. ____________.

    Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures.

    45.___________.

    Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Emile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and culture-known as functionalism-became a major theme in European, and especially British, anthropology.

    [A]Other anthropologist believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.

    [B]In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, Boas became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.

    [C]He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the “survival of the fittest,” in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.

     [D]They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people’s social structure, such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children’s entrance into adulthood.

    选项D的关键词是important rituals重要的礼仪和initiation ceremonies和一些典礼,我们在文章中并没有发现有这方面的内容,所以暂且搁置。

    [E]Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.

    [F]Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.

    选项F我们可以看到一个关键词functioning,这个词在第6段出现过,所以,我们暂且搁置不管。

    [G]For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.

    1. C

      选项C的意思是,人类的进化有这样一个特征,就是“survival of the fittest”适者生存,并且解释了种族和社会的适者生存观念。因为第一段讲的是Herbert Spencer的“生物和文化进化理论”。并且出现了Charles Darwin,我们都知道Charles Darwin提出了生物界的适者生存,而这里说人类社会的进化也有适者生存这一特征,所以,我们可以首先确定41的答案是选项C。

     

    1. E

      选项E说,在他看来,不同方面的文化diverse aspects of culture,例如……,随着社会的进化都改变了。我们在读文章的时候,一定要把每一段的关键词划出来,以利于和选项中的关键词对应。读第二段的时候,文章说,在他的作品里,他尽量说明了how aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies. 这跟选项E的内容不谋而合。所以,我们可以断定,42题的答案为选项E。

    1. A

    选项A主要介绍了什么叫“diffusionism”, 即它认为文化的革新有一个唯一的起源,并且在社会之间传递。因为第5段出现了diffusionism,所以我们可以判断,选项A肯定出现在44题之前。而且other anthropologists的出现提示,前文可能出现了anthropologist这一词,那我们回到原文中找各个人的职业,就可以看到整篇文章提出的4个主要理论家中,只有Lewis Henry Morgan和Franz Boas的职业是anthropologist,所以选项A是43题的答案。

     

    1. B

    选项B的大体意思是:为了尽可能全面的了解特殊的文化,(particular cultures是关键词),他对语言学和身体人类学都很熟悉。回到文章,我们在第3段找到了the uniqueness of all cultures, 我们可以断定,这个选项中的he指的就是Franz Boas。那Boas在第3段和第4段都出现过,所以44题选B选项。

     

    1. G

    选项G是一个例子,如果是答案的话应该是用来补充说明前面的观点的,它说,由于信息缺乏,这两位人类学家提出农耕等这些都是起源于古埃及,并且传播到世界各地。事实上,所有这些文化发展在世界不同地方的不同时期都曾分别出现过。通过分析这个例子,我们可以知道,这是两种不同的观点的比较。 在第五段我们除了看到“历史特殊论(historical particularism)”外,还看到一种“diffusionism”理论和“diffusionists”这一种人。正好是两种理论的对比,所以我们可以把45题的答案轻松的定位到选项G。

     

    Part C

    Directions:

    Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese, Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

    There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association.46It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. 47Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

    But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance.48 While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. 49Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

    50 We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education -- that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.

    46.参考译文:可以说,任何社会制度的价值在于它对扩大和改进经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是它原来的目的的一部分。

    47.参考译文:一种制度的副产品,只是逐步被注意到的,而这种效果被视为实施这种制度的一个指导性因素更加缓慢得多。

    48.参考译文:在和他们(年轻人)接触的时候,虽然容易忽略我们的行动对他们性格的影响,但是也不像与成年人打交道那么简单。

    49.参考译文:既然我们的主要任务在于使年轻人参与共同生活,我们禁不住考虑我们是否在形成获得这种能力的力量。

    50.参考译文:因此,我们可以在上面所考虑的广阔的教育过程之内区别出一种比较正规的教育,即直接的教导或学校教育。在不发达的社区,我们几乎找不到正式的教学与训练。这些社区主要依靠在成人忠于社区的社会里,向青年人灌输所必需的性格。

  • [结构分析] 步骤二、浏览语句,断句

    1、which/that原则(用来区分主句和从句,句子中的which, that, because, while, when等标志词区分主句和从句)

    He adds humbly

    that perhaps be was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things

    which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.

    这是一个复合句。He adds humbly是主句部分,从句that perhaps be was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.是宾语从句。在宾语从句中which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.是定语从句,用来修饰things。

    [翻译润色] 步骤三、单句翻译,准确排序

    He adds humbly 他谦卑地补充道

    that perhaps be was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things 他与普通人相比,更能够注意到事情

    which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully. 这些事情别人不容易注意到,并且对其进行细致地观察。

    [参考译文] 他谦卑地补充到,也许自己“和普通人比较起来,比普通人的思维方式,在对事物的观察方面,自己做的细致一些”。

     

    (50) Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.

    翻译步骤分析

    [词义推敲] 步骤一、浏览语句,识别动词和代词含义

    was convinced “信服”

    be injurious to “损伤”

    [结构分析] 步骤二、浏览语句,断句

    1、,and原则(用来区分并列句,句子中的and, or等并列连词要首先区分)

    Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect

    , and more probably to the moral character.

      2、which/that原则(用来区分主句和从句,句子中的which, that, because, while, when等标志词区分主句和从句)

    Darwin was convinced 

    that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect

    , and more probably to the moral character. 

    这是一个复合句。Darwin was convinced that是主句部分,宾语从句为that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.

    [翻译润色] 步骤三、单句翻译,准确排序

    Darwin was convinced 达尔文相信

    that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect 失去这些品位不仅意味着失去幸福,而且还可能损伤智力

    , and more probably to the moral character. 并且更有可能损害道德。

    [参考译文] 达尔文认为,失去这些品位不仅意味着失去了幸福,而且还可能损伤智力,更有可能损伤道德。

    参考译文在自传中,达尔文以几位谦逊的口吻谈到了自己的智力。他指出自己总是不能简洁明确地表达思想。但是,他认为,正是这个困难起了弥补能力欠缺的作用,迫使他长时间专注的考虑每一个句子,从而在推理和自己的观察中发现错误。他否认自己像著名的赫胥黎一样理解力强,智利超群。他还断言,在理解冗长且完全抽象的观点上,他的能力有限。正是由于这个原因,他确信自己在数学方面不会有成就。他还说自己虽然记住很多东西,但记得不准确。从某种角度来看,很糟糕的是他对某个日期或某行诗歌的记忆最长不过几天。另一方面,一些批评家指责他道:虽然他善于观察,但是缺乏推理能力。达尔文并没有接受这种指责,认为这些指责缺少根据。他认为这些指责不可能是正确的,这是因为人们对《物种起源》从始至终争论不休,许多有能力的人都相信其观点。他指出没有推理能力的人是无法写出《物种起源》的。她更愿意相信“就像每位很成功的路是或医生一样,我又相当不错的创造力,常识及判断力,但是我认为自己这些能力并不比他们强。”他谦卑地补充到,也许自己“和普通人比较起来,比普通人的思维方式,在对事物的观察方面,自己做的细致一些”。

       晚年时,他在写作中表示,在之前的二、三十年里,自己三个方面的想法发生了变化。知道30岁或30多岁,许多类型的诗歌都会给他带来极大的享受。以前,绘画和音乐都是他生活中极大的乐趣。但是在1881年,他说“现在我不能忍受哪怕只读一行诗歌,这种状况已经有好多年了。而且,我也无法欣赏绘画和音乐了。”达尔文认为,失去这些品位不仅意味着失去了幸福,而且还可能损伤智力,更有可能损伤道德。

    第三部分 WRITING

    Part A

    1. Directions:

    You have just come back from Canada found a music CD in your luggage that you forgot to return to Bob. your landlord there Write him a letter to

    1) make an apology. and

    2) suggest a solution

    You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

    Do not sign your own name at the and of the “Li Ming” instead.

    Do not write the address.(10points)

     

    Dear Bob,

    I am writing the letter to inform you that I wish to extend my sincere apology to you. I am a tenant from China who had been living in your house in Canada for two weeks.

    First and foremost, I take this opportunity show my heartfelt appreciation to the kind assistance you render me during my stay in Canada. In addition, I borrowed one CD of Beethoven’s symphonies from you in Canada. Unfortunately, when I returned home, I found to my surprise that CD in my personal baggage due to my carelessness.

    To solve the problem, I would like to send this CD to you by Express Mail Service. Once again, please accept my sincere apology for any inconveniences I have caused. I hope the settlement of the matter will meet your wishes.

                                                     Sincerely yours,

                                                          Liming

    Part B

    1. Directions:

    Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

    1) describe the drawing briefly,

    2) explain its intended meaning, and then

    3) give your comments.

    You should write neatly on Answer Sheet 2.

     

      “你一条腿,我一条腿;你我一起,走南闯北。”

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE

    What an impressive cartoon it is in describing one of the most wide-spread social phenomena concerning cooperation and communication. As is symbolically illustrated in the cartoon, supporting each other with their powerful hands, two handicapped adolescents are continuing their new journey on the ground. Crutches left behind, they have successfully cracked the hard nut of lameness which might have confused the majority of the disabled. The caption indicates, “You have merely one leg and so do I. Helping each other, we can travel extensively.”

    Undoubtedly, we can deduce from the portrayal that the cartoonist is trying to attract our attention to the issue cooperation makes success. According to a survey conducted among a group of people who were in the same college class 10 years ago, those who are ready to give their cooperation to others all become rich or managers of all field, while not a single young man having difficulty in getting along with their classmates becomes an executive or boss. Why those who are excellent in team work tend to be managers or own their own enterprise in their later life? The answer seems self-evident. On the one hand, if you are competent in profession, but have difficulty in getting along with your colleagues and even your boss, you can hardly survive the corporation. On the other hand, your chances of success are much higher with wide circle of friends who are willing to cooperate with you to provide information and resources.

    It is my view that, first of all, we can frequently use the drawings to enlighten the juvenile to learn to cooperate successfully with each other. On the other hand, whatever difficulty or situation we are confronted with, those who have the spirit of cooperation and team work are nearer to success.

    Just as John Adams, the second U.S. president quoted from the ancient Greek Aesop’s Fables, “United we stand, divided we fall.”

    文章结构分析

    第一段

    What an impressive cartoon it is in describing one of the most wide-spread social phenomena concerning…… 用来引出漫画内容,并且给人以“心领神会”之感。

    As is symbolically illustrated in the cartoon, ……描述漫画内容。

    The caption indicates, ……描述漫画内容。

    第二段

    Undoubtedly, we can deduce from the portrayal that the cartoonist is trying to attract our attention to the issue…… 用来引出主题,并且顺利的强调主题的重要。

    According to a survey conducted among a group of people who were in the same college class 10 years ago, …… 用来联系现实,只有将主题与现实联系到一起才能体现出主题的意义和作用。

    第三段

    It is my view that, first of all,…… On the other hand,…… 指出观点,符合提纲要求来展开文章。

    第四段

    Just as John Adams, the second U.S. president quoted from the ancient Greek Aesop’s Fables,……谚语将文章主题升华,并把文章顺利结尾。

  • 35.主旨题The text intends to tell us that____.

    选项A. the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.

    人类身高的变化遵循一种循环周期。

    1. human height is becoming even more predictable.

    人类的身高变得更可预测了。

    1. Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.

    美国人已经达到了生长极限。

    1. the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.

    美国人的基因形态发生了变化。

    利用“中心统一原则”确定的首段主题句和其他段落确定段落内容方向的语句。文章首段主题句是In the early 1960s, Wilt Chamberlain was one of the only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet.在20世纪60年代早期,Wilt Chamberlain是美国NBA球员中身高超过7英尺的三个球员之一。第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing.体育界的这一趋势可能掩盖了一个不为人知的现实:美国人普遍停止长高了。第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height.但是当饮食和健康状况提高后,孩子或者成年人平均每20年身高就增加一英寸半,这已经成为众所周知的声高增长的一个长期趋势。第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height.从遗传方面来看,避免过高是有好处的。第五段确定段落内容方向的语句是 Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon.遗传的极限可以突破,但是不要期待很快发生。不难发现,美国人的身高已经达到一定的增长极限。因此,正确答案为C. Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.美国人已经达到了生长极限。

    全文翻译在20世纪60年代早期,Wilt Chamberlain是美国NBA球员中个子超过7英尺的三个球员之一。但是,如果他上个赛季参赛了的话,他就会是42人中的一个了。这些年来,那些从事主要职业球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队服役时应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯。

       体育界的这一趋势可能掩盖了一个不为人知的现实:美国人普遍不再长高了。尽管相比140年前,现在的典型身高增长了2英寸,但是现在的人,特别是那些出生于在美国生活了几代的家庭里的人,他们的身高显然在20世纪60年代早期就达到了极限。他们可能不会变得更高了。Wright州立大学的人类学家William Cameron Chumlea说,“现在的普通人中,就目前的基因和环境水平而言,我们已远超出了我们所能发育的程度。”而NBA球员的情况是,他们身高的增加是由于全球各地招募球员这一越来越普遍的做法。

       人超过20岁之后,很少会继续长高。长高需要卡路里和营养素---特别是蛋白质---来滋养不断扩张的组织。在20世纪初期,营养不良及儿童感染阻碍了增高。但是随着饮食和健康状况提高,儿童及青少年每20年就普遍增高差不多1.5英寸,这已成了众所周知的身高增长上的一个长期趋势。然而疾病控制预防中心指出,男性5英尺9英寸,女性5英尺4英寸的平均身高自20世纪60年代以来就没有再次出现实质上的改变。

       从遗传方面来看,避免过高是有好处的。出生时,巨大婴儿更难通过产道。而且,尽管人类已经直立行走了几百万年,但为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚和后背仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来持续重压。西北大学的人类学家William Leonard指出,“个体机体中的遗传结构会造成一些实际的限制。”

       遗传的极限可以突破,但是不要期待其很快发生。位于马塞诸赛州的Natrick部队研究中心的自身人类学家Claire C. Gordon确信,90%雇员的工作服和工作台尺寸去须改变就能适合新增人员。她说,与那些篮球队服不同的是,军队支付的长度已有相当一段时间保持不变了。Gordon说,如果你需要预测不远将来的人类高度去设计器具的话,基本上“你可以相当自信地采用现在的数据。”

    Text 4

    In 1784, five years before he become president of the United States, George Washington, 52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw---having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.

    That's far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from their history books. But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined history from the bottom up. Works of several historians reveal the moral compromises made by the nation's early leaders and the fragile nature of the country's infancy. More significantly, they argue that many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong---and yet most did little to fight it.

    More than anything, the historians say, the founders were hampered by the culture of their time. While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste for slavery, they also understood that it was part of the political and economic bedrock of the country they helped to create.

    For one thing, the South could not afford to part with his slaves. Owning slaves was “like having a large bank account,” says Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God; George Washington, His Staves, and the Creation of America. The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution”, including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation.

    And the statesmen's political lives depended on slavery. The three-fifths formula handed Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 by inflating the votes of the southern states in the Electoral College. Once in office, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; the new land was carved into 13 states, including three slave states.

    Still Jefferson freed Hemings's children---though not Hemings herself of his approximately 150 other slaves. Washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War, overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will. Only a decade earlier, such an act would have required legislative approval in Virginia.

     

    1. George Washington's dental surgery in mentioned to____.
    2. show the primitive medical practice m the past.
    3. demonstrate the cruelty of slavery in his days.
    4. stress the role of slaves in the U.S. history.
    5. reveal some unknown aspect of his life.
    6. We may infer from the second paragraph that____.
    7. DNA technology has been widely applied to history research.
    8. in its early days the U.S. was confronted with delicate situations.
    9. historians deliberately made up some stories of Jefferson’s life.
    10. political compromises are easily found throughout the US history.
    11. What do we learn from Thomas Jefferson?
    12. His political view changed his attitude towards slavery.
    13. His status as a father made him free the child slaves.
    14. His attitude towards slavery was complex.
    15. His affair with a slave stained his prestige.
    16. Which of the following is true according to the text?
    17. Some Founding Fathers benefit politically slavery.
    18. Slaves in the old days did not have the right to vote.
    19. Slave owners usually had large savings accounts.
    20. Slavery was regarded as a peculiar institution.

    40.Washington’s decision to free slaves originated from his

    1. moral considerations.
    2. military experiences
    3. financial conditions.
    4. political stand.

    文章解析:根据中心统一原则确定,

    文章首段确定段落内容方向的语句是In 1784, five years before he become president of the United States, George Washington, 52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw---having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.1784年,52岁的George Washington在成为总统的前5年,牙齿就几乎已经掉光了。于是他雇了一位牙医,在他的下颚上移植了9颗牙齿,而这九颗牙齿是从他的奴隶嘴里拔除来的。

    第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation.但是最近,许多历史学家都开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用。

    第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是More than anything, the historians say, the founders were hampered by the culture of their time.历史学家们说,这些创始人们主要受制于当时的文化。

    第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是For one thing, the South could not afford to part with his slaves.一方面,南方无法放弃奴隶。

    第五段确定段落内容方向的语句是And the statesmen's political lives depended on slavery.政治家们的政治生活依赖奴隶制。

    第六段确定段落内容方向的语句是Still Jefferson freed Hemings's children---though not Hemings herself of his approximately 150 other slaves.虽然Hemings本人及其他约150名奴隶没有得到自由,杰弗逊还是给了他们的孩子自由。

    不难发现,这篇文章围绕着美国的国父的生活琐事和对待奴隶的观点来展开。

    题目解析:

    1. 结构题George Washington's dental surgery in mentioned to____.

    选项A. show the primitive medical practice in the past. 展示原始的医疗手段。

    1. demonstrate the cruelty of slavery in his days. 表明他那个时代努力制度的残忍。
    2. stress the role of slaves in the U.S. history. 强调美国历史上奴隶起的作用。
    3. reveal some unknown aspect of his life. 揭示他生命中不为人知的侧面。

    本题目作为结构题,应该将例子回归原文,划定例子范围,明确找对应的论点。George Washington's dental surgery定位到文章第一段。In 1784, five years before he become president of the United States, George Washington, 52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw---having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.不难发现,第一段都是华盛顿的牙齿手术的例子。因此,对应的论点句是第二段的主题句。第二段叙述到That's far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from their history books. But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined history from the bottom up. Works of several historians reveal the moral compromises made by the nation's early leaders and the fragile nature of the country's infancy. More significantly, they argue that many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong---and yet most did little to fight it.不难发现,段落中间句前有转折词”but”确定主题句为But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. 但是最近,许多历史学家都开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用。选项A. show the primitive medical practice in the past. 展示原始的医疗手段,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“现代医疗手段”;选项B. demonstrate the cruelty of slavery in his days. 表明他那个时代努力制度的残忍,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“现代医疗手段”;选项C. stress the role of slaves in the U.S. history. 强调美国历史上奴隶起的作用,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”似乎关联,但是相关信息句叙述到“奴隶在建国那代人生活中的作用”而选项“奴隶在美国历史上起的作用”是偷梁换柱;选项D. reveal some unknown aspect of his life. 揭示他生命中不为人知的侧面,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用” 相关联,体现了“同意替换”的关系。因此,正确答案为D. reveal some unknown aspect of his life. 揭示他生活中不为人知的侧面。

     

    37.推断题 We may infer from the second paragraph that____.

    选项A. DNA technology has been widely applied to history research.

    DNA技术已经被广泛应用到历史研究中。

    1. in its early days the U.S. was confronted with delicate situations.

           在早些时候,美国面对的形式很脆弱。

    1. historians deliberately made up some stories of Jefferson’s life.

           历史学家故意编造了Jefferson的生活故事。

    1. political compromises are easily found throughout the US history.

           美国整个历史中很容易发现政治妥协。

    本题目作为推断题,要明确找到指定段落的主题句。第二段主题句是But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. 但是最近,许多历史学家都开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用。A. DNA technology has been widely applied to history research. DNA技术已经被广泛应用到历史研究中,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“DNA技术被广泛应用到历史研究中”;选项B. in its early days the U.S. was confronted with delicate situations. 在早些时候,美国面对的形式很脆弱,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“美国早写时候的形式”;选项C. historians deliberately made up some stories of Jefferson’s life. 历史学家故意编造了Jefferson的生活故事,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“历史学家编造故事”;选项D. political compromises are easily found throughout the US history.  美国整个历史中很容易发现政治妥协,与相关信息句动作“许多历史学家开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“政治妥协”。显然,这一主题句与四个选项没有直接联系,确定该题目为细节推断题。细节推断题需要利用段落中所有语句的动作内容综合作出推断。段落中That's far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from their history books.与多数人记得的历史课本上提到的砍樱桃书的华盛顿的形象相差甚远。 But recently many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. 开始关注奴隶在建国那代人的生活中的作用。They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, 1998年发现的DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究。which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. 证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子。And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined history from the bottom up.从上至下的审视历史。 Works of several historians reveal the moral compromises made by the nation's early leaders and the fragile nature of the country's infancy. 揭示了美国早期领袖们在道德方面所做的妥协。More significantly, they argue that many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong---and yet most did little to fight it.辩解到许多国父知道奴隶制是错误的,但是多数人却没做什么来反对它。不难发现,在众多的动作中,只有“许多国父知道奴隶制是错误的,但是多数人却没做什么来反对它”能与选项B有联系。因此正确答案为B. in its early days the U.S. was confronted with delicate situations.在早些时候,美国面对的形式很脆弱。

     

    38.细节题What do we learn from Thomas Jefferson?

    选项A. His political view changed his attitude towards slavery.

    他的政治观点改变了他对奴隶制的态度。

    1. His status as a father made him free the child slaves.

           他作为父亲的身份使他给了他作为奴隶的孩子的自由。

    1. His attitude towards slavery was complex.

           他对待奴隶制的态度是复杂的。

    1. His affair with a slave stained his prestige.

           他与一个奴隶的事件毁了他的名声。

    本题目作为细节题,要利用定位词在文章中定位相关信息句。利用定位词Thomas Jefferson 定位到第二段They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. 1998年发现的DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究。这项研究证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子。选项A. His political view changed his attitude towards slavery. 他的政治观点改变了他对奴隶制的态度,与定位的语句动作“DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究,证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“政治观点”;选项B. His status as a father made him free the child slaves. 他作为父亲的身份使他给了他作为奴隶的孩子的自由,与定位的语句动作“DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究,证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“给了他作为奴隶的孩子自由”;选项C. His attitude towards slavery was complex. 他对待奴隶制的态度是复杂的,与定位的语句动作“DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究,证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“对奴隶的态度”;选项D. His affair with a slave stained his prestige. 他与一个奴隶的事件毁了他的名声,与定位的语句动作“DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究,证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“毁掉名声”。显然,该句子的信息与四个选项没有任何联系。作为细节题,定位词所在的语句没有足够信息确定答案时,向下一句一句的确定信息,直到找到相关信息句。向下找到段落尾句More significantly, they argue that many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong---and yet most did little to fight it. 意义更为深远的是,他们辩解到许多国父知道奴隶制是错误的,但是多数人却没做什么来反对它。不难发现Thomas Jefferson作为国父对待奴隶制的态度是矛盾的。因此,正确答案为C. His attitude towards slavery was complex.他对待奴隶制的态度是复杂的。(补充:1、细节题利用定位词在段落中定位后,如果没有充足的客观信息确定答案,应该向下一句一句搜寻信息,知道最终确定相关信息句;)

    (2、细节题利用定位词定位语句后,要遵循动作决定论的原则与选项比较。例如,

    句子They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. 1998年发现的DNA证据驱使他们从事该研究。这项研究证实了Thomas Jefferson 和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子

    选项D. His affair with a slave stained his prestige.他与一个奴隶的事件毁了他的名声

    虽然文中语句提到Thomas Jefferson和他的一个奴隶的事件,但是选项的动作“毁了他的名声”却与句子动作无关。

     

    1. 推断题Which of the following is true according to the text?

    选项A. Some Founding Fathers benefit politically slavery.

    在政治方面一些国父从奴隶制中受益。

    1. Slaves in the old days did not have the right to vote.

    在过去,奴隶没有选举权。

    1. Slave owners usually had large savings accounts.

    奴隶主通常拥有大额存款单。

    1. Slavery was regarded as a peculiar institution.

    奴隶制被认为是一种独特的制度。

    本题目作为推断题,要明确找到指定段落的主题句。由于推断题题干没有任何细节信息提示来定位段落,所以一般在其他四道题目完成后遵循“空白处定位”的原则。不难发现,第36题定位在第一、二段;第37题定位在第二段;第38题定位在第二段;第40题定位在第五段。所以,第39题对应第三、四、五段。第三段没有主题句。第四段For one thing, the South could not afford to part with his slaves. Owning slaves was “like having a large bank account,” says Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God; George Washington, His Staves, and the Creation of America. The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution”, including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation. 显然,段落中间句前没有转折词,段落尾句体现了统计数字,是细节。因此第四段主题句为段首句For one thing, the South could not afford to part with his slaves.一方面,南方无法放弃奴隶。第五段And the statesmen's political lives depended on slavery. The three-fifths formula handed Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 by inflating the votes of the southern states in the Electoral College. Once in office, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; the new land was carved into 13 states, including three slave states. 显然,段落中间句前没有转折词,段落尾句体现了时间转移的具体事实,是细节。因此,第五段主题句为And the statesmen's political lives depended on slavery.政治家们的政治生活依赖奴隶制。不难发现,奴隶制度对南方地区很重要,而且决定政治家的政治生活。因此,正确答案为A. Some Founding Fathers benefit politically slavery. 在政治方面一些国父从奴隶制中受益。

     

    40.细节题Washington’s decision to free slaves originated from his____.

    选项A. moral considerations. 道德考虑。

    1. military experiences 军事经历。
    2. financial conditions. 财政状况。
    3. political stand. 政治立场。

    本题目作为细节题,要利用定位词在文章中定位相关信息句。利用定位词Washington’s decision 最后一段第二句Washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War, overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will.华盛顿在看到独立战争中黑人士兵的英勇表现并开始相信人人平等后,克服了亲属们的强烈反对,按照自己的意愿,让他的奴隶们获得了自由。选项A. moral considerations. 道德考虑,与相关信息句动作“看到独立战争中黑人士兵的英勇表现并开始相信人人平等”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“道德问题”;选项B. military experiences 军事经历,与相关信息句动作“看到独立战争中黑人士兵的英勇表现并开始相信人人平等”直接关联;选项C. financial conditions. 财政状况,与相关信息句动作“看到独立战争中黑人士兵的英勇表现并开始相信人人平等”没有任何关联;D. political stand. 政治立场,与相关信息句动作“看到独立战争中黑人士兵的英勇表现并开始相信人人平等”没有任何关联。因此,正确答案为B. military experiences 军事经历。

    全文翻译1784年,52岁的乔治华盛顿成为美国总统的前5年,牙齿就几乎掉光了。于是他雇了一名牙医,在他下颚移植了9颗牙,而这9颗牙是从他的奴隶的嘴里拔出来的。

       多数人记得的是历史课本中提到的砍樱桃树的华盛顿的形象,与上述形象相差甚远。但是最近,许多历史学家都开始关注奴隶制在建国那代人的生活中的作用。1998年发现的DNA证据是趋势他们从事该研究的部分原因,该证据基本确定的证实托马斯杰斐逊和他的奴隶Sally Hemings至少生过一个孩子。仅仅在过去的30多年间,学者们就已经从上至下地审视了历史。几位历史学家的著作揭示了美国早期的领袖们在道德方面所做的妥协,以及美国在建国初期的脆弱本质。意义更为深远的是,他们声称,许多国父知道奴隶制是错误的,但是多数人却没做什么来反对它。

       历史学家说,这些创始人们主要受制于当时的文化。尽管华盛顿和杰斐逊私底下也表示过对奴隶制的反感,但同时他们也理解对于他们帮助创建的这个国家而言,奴隶制是其政治和经济基础的一部分。

       一方面,南部无法放弃奴隶制。《不完美的上帝:乔治华盛顿,他的奴隶及美国的建立》一书的作者Wieneck说,拥有奴隶就像是“拥有一个大的银行账户”。如果没有“特别条款”的保护,其中包括为了一会代表的席位,将一名奴隶视为五分之三个人的条款,南部各州就不会签署《美国宪法》。

       政治家们的政治生活以来奴隶制。五分之三代表权的规定让杰斐逊在1800年的总统选举中以微弱的优势胜出,该规定使得选举团中支持他的南部各州人数增多。杰斐逊当权期间,曾通过1803年购买路易斯安那州进一步拓展了奴隶制的存在范围:新大陆被分成13个州,包括3个实行奴隶制的州。

       虽然Hemings本人及其他约150名奴隶没有得到自由,杰斐逊还是给了她的孩子们自由。在看到独立战争中黑人士兵英勇表现并开始相信人人平等后,华盛顿克服了亲属的强烈反对,按照自己的意愿,让他的奴隶们获得了自由。而仅仅十年前,这一行为在弗吉尼亚还必须要得到立法机关批准才行。

    Part B

    Directions:

    In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one front the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

    The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything else instead of writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, of lie down to write. (41)____________________

    Be flexible, Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point the next, but do not permit to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft (42) _____________ Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.

    (43)____________Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will not lose any writing on the other side.

    If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraphs by making just a few simple keyboard commands. Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements to your writing. (44)_____________ These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on revisions.

    Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that is unrelated to you thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who wrote “the A&P as a state of mind” wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sarnmy displays chauvinistic attitude toward women. (45)_________________

    Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times ---and then again---working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire versions of the paper. Rewrite. The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic. Transition should connect one paragraph to the text so that thare are no abrupt or confusing shifts. Awkward or wordy phrasing of unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and prodded into shape.

     

    [A]To make revising easier, leave wide margins extra space between lines so that you easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only one side of the paper.

    [B]After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It’s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.

    [C]It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers’ prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing any material because of power failures or other problems.

    [D]It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.

    [E]Although this is an interesting it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the settng influences Sammy's decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A & P. “policy” he enforces.

    [F]In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in “A & P” the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel’s store policies.

    [G]By using the first draft as means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers don't use outlines at all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not Attempt to compose a perfectly correct draft the first time around.

    解题原则分析:

    承上启下原则:供选句子的前或后相邻语句能够与供选择的句子之间体现出紧密的逻辑关系,即,前面语句引出话题,供选语句承接话题,后面语句延续话题。因此,在供选语句的前面要确定相邻语句,判断所提及的话题。然后,利用话题与选项比较确定答案。如果多个选项与该话题有关,利用后面相邻的语句验证并最终选择答案。

    解题步骤分析:

    一、理解选项含义,确定选项所叙述的话题

    [A]To make revising easier, leave wide margins extra space between lines so that you easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only one side of the paper.为了方便修改,写作时边距留大些,两行之间留空行,这样方便添加单词、句子,方便修正错误。只在纸的一面写字。

    [B]After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It’s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.在你清楚完整地完成了文章的正文后,特别注意文章的首段和结论段。最好是在你准确的了解你要介绍的内容后再写介绍的段落内容。结论段也要同等重视,因为他留给读者最后的印象。

    [C]It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers’ prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing any material because of power failures or other problems.但是,需要记住的是,虽然刚刚打印出来的一份整洁的文章可能看起来棒极了,但打印机打印出来的只是输入进去的想法和书写进去的内容。许多作家谨慎地将数据储存在磁盘里。每完成一稿都将各页打印出来。以免由于电力瘫痪或其他问题造成的材料丢失。

    [D]It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.你写作的方式无关紧要,重要的是写。既然已经将一个主题拓展成一篇临时性的论文,你就可以整合笔记内容,丰富自己拟订的提纲。

    [E]Although this is an interesting it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the settng influences Sammy's decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A & P. “policy” he enforces.尽管这个问题很有意思,但与主题无关。那篇文章的主题是解释环境如何对Sammy决定放弃工作产生影响。删除了该段后,他添加了一段,该段描述Lengel对女孩们表现暴躁,这样她就可以把话题引向Lengel所坚持的A&P政策。

    [F]In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in “A & P” the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel’s store policies.在最后一段,关于A&P的内容安排,这个学生通过提及他拒绝接受Lengel的店规的方式增加了为什么Sammy辞职的原因。

    [G]By using the first draft as means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers don't use outlines at all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not Attempt to compose a perfectly correct draft the first time around.通过将初稿当作思考内容的方法,你很有可能发现比最初看笔记时多发现更多的东西。许多好作家根本不拟提纲,但是会在写作时找到顺序原则。不要一开始就试图写一篇毫无错误的文章。

    不难发现,本文是围绕叙述如何写文章来展开的。

    二、提炼文章对应语句信息,确定下文叙述的话题

    41.为选择该题目的答案,要在前面确定相邻的语句,以便确定所叙述的话题。前面相邻语句叙述到The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, of lie down to write.只有当你不再回避无法回避的事情:坐着,站着或者躺着写作,初稿才会跃然纸上。不难发现,这是写作前所做出的准备工作。因此,41题目应该是写作的开始。因此,正确答案为D。

    1. 为选择该题目的答案,要在前面确定相邻的语句,以便确定所叙述的话题。前面相邻语句叙述到If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft.如果现在有一个相关的重要想法,将它写进草稿里。不难发现,写作的步骤更进一层,引出了草稿,初稿。因此,正确答案为G。
    2. 为选择该题目的答案,要在前面确定相邻的语句,以便确定所叙述的话题。前面相邻语句叙述到Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.通常一气呵成更容易写出好文章,而不是小心翼翼的修正错误。不难发现,该句子引出了写作过程中没有必要着急修正错误这个话题。因此,正确答案为A。
    3. 为选择该题目的答案,要在前面确定相邻的语句,以便确定所叙述的话题。前面相邻语句叙述到Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements to your writing.一些软件程序还可以检查你文章中的拼写及某些语法问题。不难发现,该句子引出了电脑软件对于写作的帮助。因此,正确答案为C。
    4. 为选择该题目的答案,要在前面确定相邻的语句,以便确定所叙述的话题。前面相邻语句叙述到The student who wrote “the A&P as a state of mind” wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sarnmy displays chauvinistic attitude toward women. 那个写“The A&P是一种思想状态”的学生很明智地删除一段,该段质疑Sammy是否表现出对女性的大男子主义。不难发现,该句子引出了删除段落内容这一话题。因此,正确答案为E。

    全文翻译

    削铅笔,整理桌子,做所有其他的事情,而不动笔写的时代已经结束了。只有当你不再回避无法回避的事情,坐着、站着或躺着写作,初稿才能跃然纸上。你写作的方式无关紧要,重要的是写。已经将一个主题拓展成一篇临时性的论文,你就可以整合笔记内容,丰富自己拟订的提纲。

        要具有灵活性。提纲要能够引领你顺畅地上下贯通,但又不会让你草草而就。如果当时有一个相关的重要想法,将它写进草稿里。通过将初稿当作思考内容的方法,你很有可能发现比最初看笔记时多发现更多的东西。许多好作家根本不拟提纲,但是会在写作时找到顺序原则。不要一开始就试图写一篇毫无错误的文章。语法、标点符号、拼写问题留到修改时解决。要关注你所写的内容。通常,一气呵成更容易写出好文章,而不是小心翼翼地修正错误。

    为了方便修改,写作时边距留大些,两行之间留空行,这样方便添加单词、句子,方便修正错误。只在纸的一面写字。这样,你就很容易了解每页纸的内容,而且,如果你想剪下一段,把它放到别处,你也不会丢失那张纸另一面上的文字。

    如果你用文字处理器写作,可以利用其添加、删除、移动整段的功能,只需要发送几个简单的键盘指令即可。一些软件程序还可以检查你文章中的拼写及某些语法问题。但是,需要记住的是,虽然刚刚打印出来的一份整洁的文章可能看起来棒极了,但打印机打印出来的只是输入进去的想法和书写进去的内容。许多作家谨慎地将数据储存在磁盘里。每完成一稿都将各页打印出来。以免由于电力瘫痪或其他问题造成的材料丢失。

    一旦你写出初稿,就可以删除于论文无关的材料,补充用以阐述的观点,让论文更有说服力的必须材料。那个写“A&P是一种思想状态”的学生很明智地删除一段,该段质疑Sammy是否表现出对女性的大男子主义。尽管这个问题很有意思,但与主题无关。那篇文章的主题是解释环境如何对Sammy决定放弃工作产生影响。删除了该段后,他添加了一段,该段描述Lengel对女孩们表现暴躁,这样她就可以把话题引向Lengel所坚持的A&P政策。

    记住你的初稿仅此而已。你应该反复多次阅读文章,不断充实内容,让论述更清楚。可能最后你的论文十几个不同的版本。这样的话就重写。段落中的每句话都要与一个主题有关,两段之间要有过渡,这样不会有一个突然跳跃或让读者感到困惑。要毫不留情地挑出那些糟糕的、废话连篇的用词或不清楚的句子和段落,仔细打磨。

     

    Part C

    Directions:

    Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET2, (10points)

     In his autobiography, Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary modesty. He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but (46) he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations. He disclaimed the possession of any great quickness of apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. (47)He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy. So poor in one sense was it that be never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. (48)On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the change made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer he had no power of reasoning. This, he thought, could not be true, because the “Origin of Species ”is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and has convinced many able men . No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing some power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that “I have a fair share of invention, and of common sense of judgment. Such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in any higher degree”(49)He adds humbly that perhaps be was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.

    Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion hat in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of many kinds gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable and music very great delight. In 1881, however, he said: “Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry. I have also almost lost my taste for picture or music.”(50)Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness but might possibly be injurious to the intellect , and more probably to the moral character.

     

    (46) He believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.

    翻译步骤分析

    [词义推敲] 步骤一、浏览语句,识别动词和代词含义

    believe “相信”

    forcing him to think long “迫使他考虑”

    detect “探测”引申为“发现”

    [结构分析] 步骤二、浏览语句,断句

    1、,and原则(用来区分并列句,句子中的and, or等并列连词要首先区分)

    he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence

    , and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.

      2、which/that原则(用来区分主句和从句,句子中的which, that, because, while, when等标志词区分主句和从句)

    he believes

    that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence

    , and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.

    这个句子结构比较复杂,这是一个复合句。He believes 是主句部分。that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence与and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.是宾语从句。在并于从句中and连接两个并列成分。

    [翻译润色] 步骤三、单句翻译,准确排序

    he believes他认为

    that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence正是这个困难起了弥补能力欠缺的作用,迫使他长时间专注的考虑每一个句子

    , and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations. 从而在推理和自己的观察中发现错误。

    [参考译文] 他认为,正是这个困难起了弥补能力欠缺的作用,迫使他长时间专注的考虑每一个句子,从而在推理和自己的观察中发现错误。

     

    (47) He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.

    翻译步骤分析

    [词义推敲] 步骤一、浏览语句,识别动词和代词含义

    assert “断言”

    follow “跟随”引申为“理解”

    succeed“成功”

    [结构分析] 步骤二、浏览语句,断句

    1、which/that原则(用来区分并列句,句子中的and, or等并列连词要首先区分)

    He asserted, also,

    that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited

    , for which reason he felt certain

    that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.

    这是一个复合句。He asserted, also, that his power was very limited是主句。不定式短语to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought修饰名词“power”。定语从句for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.用来分析前面句子的原因。

     [翻译润色] 步骤三、单句翻译,准确排序

    He asserted, also, 他还断言

    that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited在理解冗长且完全抽象的观点上,他的能力有限

    , for which reason he felt certain 正是由于这个原因他确信

    that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.他在数学方面不会有成就。

    [参考译文] 他还断言,在理解冗长且完全抽象的观点上,他的能力有限。正是由于这个原因,他确信自己在数学方面不会有成就。

     

    (48) On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer he had no power of reasoning.

    翻译步骤分析

    [词义推敲] 步骤一、浏览语句,识别动词和代词含义

    accept “接受”

    charge  “指责”

    power of reasoning  “推理能力”

    [结构分析] 步骤二、浏览语句,断句

    1、,and原则(用来区分并列句,句子中的and, or等并列连词要首先区分)

    On the other hand

    , he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer

    , he had no power of reasoning.

      2、which/that原则(用来区分主句和从句,句子中的which, that, because, while, when等标志词区分主句和从句)

    On the other hand

    , he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics

    that, while he was a good observer

    , he had no power of reasoning.

    这个句子结构比较清晰,这是一个复合句。On the other hand是状语,补充说明整个句子。句子he did not accept是主句部分,对应的宾语从句是that, while he was a good observer he had no power of reasoning。 as well founded the charge是方式状语。过去分词短语made by some of his critics做定语,用来修饰名词charge。

    [翻译润色] 步骤三、单句翻译,准确排序

    On the other hand 另一方面

    , he did not accept as well founded the change made by some of his critics 他并不接受一些批评家的缺少根据的指责

    that, while he was a good observer 虽然他善于观察

    , he had no power of reasoning. 但是缺乏推理能力

    [参考译文] 另一方面,一些批评家指责他道:虽然他善于观察,但是缺乏推理能力。达尔文并没有接受这种指责,认为这些指责缺少根据。

     

    (49) He adds humbly that perhaps be was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.

    翻译步骤分析

    [词义推敲] 步骤一、浏览语句,识别动词和代词含义

    add “增加”引申为“补充”

    noticing “注意到”

    escape attention  “逃跑”引申为“不注意”

    observing  “观察”

    1. 细节题According to paragraph4, the stress women confront tends to be____.

    选项A. domestic and temporary. 内在的并且短暂的。

    1. irregular and violent. 不规则的并且激烈的。
    2. durable and frequent. 持续的并且频繁的。
    3. trivial and random. 典型的并且随机的。

    该题目作为细节题,要用定位词在文章中定位。利用定位词 “the stress women confront”定位在第四段 “I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature.”我认为妇女所暴露的这种压力趋向于是一种慢性并且重复的本性。因此,正确答案为C. durable and frequent.更持久,更频繁。

    (补充:细节题:根据文章中具体细节信息做出提问的题目。题干一般围绕5Ws1H而展开。即,who, what, when, where, why, how解题要点:利用四步法中第一、第二两个步骤,将题干在对应段落中粗略定位后,利用IRT命题理论中的细节题定位词(题干中的重要意义,总结意义或题干的定位词)准确确定相关信息句,便可以准确进行判断并确定细节题的正确答案(如定位词所在的句子不能确定答案,那么继续向下问找信息)。

     

    1. 识词题The sentence “I lived from paycheck to paycheck”(line6.para.5)shows that____.

    选项A. Alvarez cared about nothing but making money.

    Alvarez只关心赚钱。

    1. Alvarez's salary barely covered her household expenses.

    Alvarez的工资几乎无法支付日常开销。

    1. Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs.

    Alvarez从不同工作中获得帐单。

    1. Alvarez paid practically everything by check..

    Alvarez几乎所有东西都用支票付帐。

    该题目作为识词题,先将要识别的词汇到文章中定位,按照“方位论原则”:在识别词汇后面找表示“解释说明,逻辑关系”的表达,或者向前面找平行结构。将“I lived from paycheck to paycheck”定位到第五段Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. “I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape to go to school, and get ahead and do better.” Later her marriage ended and she became a single mother: It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck. 该句子作为本段落的段尾句,后面没有任何语句信息,即后面没有解释说明或者并列转折的标志词汇,因此向前面平行结构。前面相邻语句为相关信息句。It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. “最困难的事包括照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付租金,交汽车贷款还有还债。”可见,Alvarez的最大问题是入不敷出。选项A. Alvarez cared about nothing but making money. Alvarez只关心赚钱,与相关信息句动作“最困难的事包括照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付租金,交汽车贷款还有还债”没有关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“只关心赚钱”;选项B. Alvarez's salary barely covered her household expenses.  Alvarez的工资几乎无法支付日常开销,与相关信息句动作“最困难的事包括照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付租金,交汽车贷款还有还债”直接关联,体现“包含与被包含(即具体与抽象)”的关系;选项C. Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs. Alvarez从不同工作中获得帐单,与相关信息句动作“最困难的事包括照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付租金,交汽车贷款还有还债”没有关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“从不同工作中获得帐单”;选项D. Alvarez paid practically everything by check. Alvarez几乎所有东西都用支票付账,与相关信息句动作“最困难的事包括照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付租金,交汽车贷款还有还债”没有关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“几乎所有东西都用支票付帐”。因此,正确答案为B. Alvarez’s salary barely covered her household expenses. Alvarez的工资几乎无法满足日常家庭开销的花费。(补充:识词题,将词汇回归原文后。先找后面解释说明或者并列转折的表达;如果没有解释说明或者并列转折,再向前文找平行结构。因此,所谓的上下文找信息的理论是有漏洞的,正所谓瞒天过海。

     

    25.主旨题 Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

    选项A. Strain of Stress: No Way Out? 面对压力:束手无策?

    1. Responses to Stress: Gender Difference. 压力的反应:性别差异。
    2. Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say. 压力分析:什么物质起作用。
    3. Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress.性别差异:女性承受压力。

    利用“中心统一原则”确定的首段主题句和其他段落确定段落内容方向的语句。文章首段主题句是Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, …… Yehuda博士说,“与男性相比,女性面对压力时特别容易发展成抑郁或焦虑性障碍”。第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. 对人类和动物的研究均表明性激素在某种程度上影响对压力的反应,在同样情况下,处于压力状态下的女性比男性产生更多的触发器化学物质。第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是Adding to a woman's increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress.使女性处于压力状态下的化学物质增多的另一个原因是他们面对的机会增多。第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是Dr Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. Yhuda博士还注意到两性之间的另一个差异。第五段确定段落内容方向的语句是Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. Adeline Alvarez18岁结婚,生了儿子,但还是决心要把大学读完。第六段确定段落内容方向的语句是But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain.但是如今大多数女性要承担许多义务,很少有休息时间,一直面临压力。不难发现,文章叙述的主要内容是妇女承受压力及其原因的问题。因此,正确答案为D. Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress.(补充:主旨题应用中心统一原则效果最为明显。中心统一原则表述到:文章首段要准确确定主题句;其他段落段落中间句前有转折词,看转折词所在句,无转折词直接看段首句。

    全文翻译尽管女性在现代生活的某些领域一直未能超过男性,但在至少一个不那么受欢迎的领域,女性似乎走在了男性的前面。在纽约退伍军人管理医院工作的首席精神病学家Yehuda博士说,“与男性相比,女性面对压力时特别容易发展成抑郁或焦虑性障碍。”

       对人类和动物的研究都表明性激素在某种程度上影响对压力的反应,在同样状况下,处于压力状态下的女性比男性产生更多的触发器化学物质。在几项研究中,当将处于压力状态下的雌鼠的卵巢(雌性生殖器官)被摘除,他们产生的化学物质就变得和雄鼠一样多。

       此外,使女性处于压力状态下的化学物质增多的另一个原因是她们面对压力的机会增多。Yehuda博士说,“这并不是说女性做事不如男性做得那样好,只是因为她们要做的事儿太多。”他说,“女性对压力的耐受力甚至超过了男性,只是因为她们要处理太多的事务,她们才更快更明显地变得筋疲力尽。”

       Yehuda博士还注意到零星之间的另一个差异。“我认为女性接触的事情往往是长期的、重复的。男性参战,要承受战争压力。男人接触的往往是随机的身体上的暴力,而女性接触的人与人之间的暴力往往发生在家里,不幸的是,其实施者是父母或其他家庭成员,而这些暴力往往不只一次。这种长期关系带来的折磨有可能给她们造成毁灭性的打击。”

       Adeline Alvarez18岁结婚,生了儿子,但是决心读完大学。“我认为获得大学学位苦苦挣扎过。生活中面临那么多的挫折,所以上学不断进步、做得更好,这对我来说意味着一种解脱。”从那之后,她离了婚,成了一位单身母亲。“最困难的事情是照顾一个十几岁的孩子,上班,付房租,付车贷,偿还债务。我的生活就是从付账单道付账单。”

       Alvarez指出,并非每个人都会经历长期的严重压力,但是如今大多数女性要承担许多义务,很少有休息时间,一直面临压力。Alvarez的经历表明,要在压力威胁到你的健康和技能之前找到方法疏导它,这一点很重要。

    Text 2

    It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the author’s names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.

    No longer, The Internet---and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government--funded research by restricting access to it---is making access to scientific results a reality. The Organization for                                     Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. The report, by john Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than that. It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.

    The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market if estimated at between $7 billion and $II billion. The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals.

    This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. Entirely new business models are emerging; three ones were identified by the report's author. There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer)for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where originations such as universities of international laboratories support institutional repositories. Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.

    1. In the first paragraph, the author discusses____.
    2. the background information of journal editing.
    3. the publication routine of laboratory reports.
    4. the relations of authors with journal publishers.
    5. the traditional process of journal publication.
    6. Which of the following is true of the OECD report?
    7. It criticizes government-funded research.
    8. It introduces an effective means of publication.
    9. It upsets profit-making journal publishers.
    10. It benefits scientific research considerably.
    11. According to the text. online publication is significant in that____.
    12. it provides an easier access to scientific results.
    13. it brings huge profits to scientific researchers.
    14. it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge.
    15. it facilitates public investment in scientific research.
    16. With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper if required to____.
    17. cover the cost of its publication.
    18. subscribe to the journal publishing it.
    19. allow other online journals to use it freely.
    20. complete the peer-review before submission.
    21. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?               
    22. The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.
    23. A new modal of publication is emerging.
    24. Authors welcome the new channel for publication.
    25. Publication is rendered easier by online service.

    文章解析:根据中心统一原则确定,

    文章首段主题句是It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the author’s names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.过去事情如此简单。实验室里工作的一组研究者将研究结果交给一本期刊,之后期刊编辑从论文上删掉作者的名字和简历,将他送给同行审阅。根据同行的审阅评语,编辑将发表论文或退稿。

    第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是No longer, The Internet---and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government--funded research by restricting access to it--- is making access to scientific results a reality.现在,情况不是这样了。通过限制人们对研究成果的查看权,出版商从政府资助的研究中获益,科学研究的出资机构对此种行为表示质疑,这种压力连同互联网一同使得人们获知科学研究成果的权利成为现实。

    第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.知识价值以及公众投资研究的回归部分依赖与期刊的广泛传播,人们随时可以看到。

    第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online.现在这种情况在改变。根据OECD的报告,现在差不多有75%的学术期刊可在线查阅。

    不难发现,这篇文章围绕着期刊出版程序发展变化的历程来展开。

    题目解析:

    1. 推断题In the first paragraph, the author discusses____.

    选项A. the background information of journal editing. 期刊编辑信息的背景。

    1. the publication routine of laboratory reports. 实验室实验报告出版的例行工作。
    2. the relations of authors with journal publishers. 作者和期刊出版商的关系。
    3. the traditional process of journal publication. 传统的期刊出版的程序。

    该题目作为推断题,要找到指定段落的主题句。段落中间句前没有转折词,段首句高度概括,但是主语“It”不明确,指代后面所有语句内容。句子叙述到It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the author’s names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal. 过去事情如此简单。实验室里工作的一组研究者将研究结果交给一本期刊,之后期刊编辑从论文上删掉作者的名字和简历,将他送给同行审阅。根据同行的审阅评语,编辑将发表论文或退稿。版权属于期刊出版商,而那些想了解研究成果的研究者则必须订阅期刊。不难发现,上文语句是叙述了书写论文—交给出版社—审阅—出版或退稿的整个流程。因此,正确答案为D. the traditional process of journal publication. 传统的期刊出版的程序。

     

    1. 细节题 Which of the following is true of the OECD report?

    选项A. It criticizes government-funded research. 报告批评政府资助的研究。

    1. It introduces an effective means of publication. 报告引进了一种有效的出版方法。
    2. It upsets profit-making journal publishers. 报告令赚钱的出版商们感到不安。
    3. It benefits scientific research considerably. 报告十分有利于科学研究。

    该题目作为细节题,要用定位词在文章中定位。利用定位词“OECD report”定位到第二段The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vichery of OECD, makes heavy reading for publisher who have, so far, made handsome profit. But it goes further than that 澳大利亚维多利亚大学的约翰休斯顿和OECD的Graham Vichery做的报告使已经获得巨额利润的出版商们要做大量阅读(即花费精力去阅读去理解)。选项A. It criticizes government-funded research. 报告批评政府资助的研究,与相关信息句动作“使已经获得巨额利润的出版商们要做大量阅读(即花费精力去阅读去理解)”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“批评政府资助的研究”;选项B. It introduces an effective means of publication. 报告引进了一种有效的出版方法,与相关信息句动作“使已经获得巨额利润的出版商们要做大量阅读(即花费精力去阅读去理解)”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“有效的出版方法”;选项C. It upsets profit-making journal publishers. 报告令赚钱的出版商们感到不安,与相关信息句动作“使已经获得巨额利润的出版商们要做大量阅读(即花费精力去阅读去理解)”相关联,动作“令赚钱的出版商们感到不安”对应于“使已经获得巨额利润的出版商们要做大量阅读”,体现“同意替换”的关系;选项D. It benefits scientific research considerably. 报告十分有利于科学研究。因此,正确答案为C. It upsets profit-making journal publishers.令赚钱的出版商们感到不安。

     

    1. 细节题 According to the text, online publication is significant in that____.

    选项A. it provides an easier access to scientific results.

    在线出版让提供容易查询的科学研究成果。

    1. it brings huge profits to scientific researchers.

    在线出版给科研工作者带来巨额利润。

    1. it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge.

    在线出版强调科学知识的巨大作用。

    1. it facilitates public investment in scientific research.

      在线出版方便于为科学研究提供公共投资。

    该题目作为细节题,要用定位词在文章中定位。利用定位词“online publication”定位到第四段 “There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreement.”这就是所谓的大买卖。通过网络授权,机构用户可以接近(查询)在线杂志标题。选项A. it provides an easier access to scientific results. 在线出版让提供容易查询的科学研究成果,与相关信息句动作“通过网络授权,机构用户可以接近(查询)在线杂志标题”直接关联,体现“同意替换”的关系;选项B. it brings huge profits to scientific researchers. 在线出版给科研工作者带来巨额利润,与相关信息句动作“通过网络授权,机构用户可以接近(查询)在线杂志标题”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“给科研工作者带来巨额利润”;选项C. it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge. 在线出版强调科学知识的巨大作用,与相关信息句动作“通过网络授权,机构用户可以接近(查询)在线杂志标题”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“强调科学知识的作用”;选项D. it facilitates public investment in scientific research. 在线出版方便于为科学研究提供公共投资,与相关信息句动作“通过网络授权,机构用户可以接近(查询)在线杂志标题”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“国防便于为科学研究提供公共投资”。因此,正确答案为A. it provides an easier access to scientific result. 在线出版让提供容易查询的科学研究成果。

    1. 细节题With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper if required to____.

    选项A. cover the cost of its publication.支付出版费用。

    1. subscribe to the journal publishing it. 同意期刊出版它。
    2. allow other online journals to use it freely. 允许其他在线期刊随意使用它。
    3. complete the peer-review before submission. 在呈交期刊前完成同事审阅。

    该题目作为细节题,要用定位词在文章中定位。利用定位词“the author of a paper”定位到第四段 “There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author(or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.”有公开阅读出版物,一般是要求作者或者其雇主为即将出版的材料来付钱。选项A. cover the cost of its publication.支付出版费用,与相关信息句动作“要求作者或者其雇主为即将出版的材料来付钱”直接关联,体现“同意替换”的关系;选项B. subscribe to the journal publishing it. 同意期刊出版它,与相关信息句动作“要求作者或者其雇主为即将出版的材料来付钱”没有任何关联,相关信息句没有涉及“同意期刊出版它”;选项C. allow other online journals to use it freely. 允许其他在线期刊随意使用它,与相关信息句动作“要求作者或者其雇主为即将出版的材料来付钱”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“允许在线期刊随意使用它”;选项D. complete the peer-review before submission. 在呈交期刊前完成同事审阅,与相关信息句动作“要求作者或者其雇主为即将出版的材料来付钱” 没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“在呈交期刊前完成同事审阅”。因此,正确答案为A. cover the cost of its publication.支付出版费用。

    1. 主旨题Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?               

    选项A. The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.互联网威胁出版商的利益。

    1. A new modal of publication is emerging.一种新的出版模式出现。
    2. Authors welcome the new channel for publication.作者欢迎这种新的出版渠道。
    3. Publication is rendered easier by online service.在线服务使出版变得更简单。

    利用“中心统一原则”确定的首段主题句和其他段落确定段落内容方向的语句。文章首段主题句是It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the author’s names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.过去事情如此简单。实验室里工作的一组研究者将研究结果交给一本期刊,之后期刊编辑从论文上删掉作者的名字和简历,将他送给同行审阅。根据同行的审阅评语,编辑将发表论文或退稿。第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是No longer, The Internet---and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government--funded research by restricting access to it--- is making access to scientific results a reality.现在,情况不是这样了。通过限制人们对研究成果的查看权,出版商从政府资助的研究中获益,科学研究的出资机构对此种行为表示质疑,这种压力连同互联网一同使得人们获知科学研究成果的权利成为现实。第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.知识价值以及公众投资研究的回归部分依赖与期刊的广泛传播,人们随时可以看到。第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online.现在这种情况在改变。根据OECD的报告,现在差不多有75%的学术期刊可在线查阅。不难发现,这篇文章围绕着出版程序的发展变化历程展开的。因此,正确答案为B. A new modal of publication is emerging.一种新的出版模式出现。补充:主旨题应用中心统一原则效果最为明显。中心统一原则表述到:文章首段要准确确定主题句;其他段落段落中间句前有转折词,看转折词所在句,无转折词直接看段首句。

    全文翻译过去事情如此简单。实验室里工作的一组研究者经研究结果呈交给一本期刊,之后期刊编辑从论文上删掉作者的名字和简历,将它送给同行审阅。根据同行的审阅评语,编辑将发表论文或者退稿。版权属于期刊出版商,而那些想了解研究成果的研究者则必须订阅该期刊。

       现在,情况不再是这样了。通过限制人们对研究成果的查看权,出版商从政府资助的研究中获益,科学研究的出资机构对此种行为表示质疑,这种压力连同互联网一同使得人们获知科学研究成果的权利称为现实。经济合作与发展组织(OECD)刚刚发表一份报告,以阐明此种变化的深远意义。澳大利亚维多利亚大学的John Houghton和经济合作发展组织的Graham Vickery共同撰写了该报告,报告将令那些目前为止获益颇丰的出版商感到心情沉重。但是其意义远远不止于此。它预示了科学事业一直以来的关键因素的一种转变。

       知识的价值以及公众投资研究的回归部分依赖于期刊的广泛传播,人们随时都可以看到。这是大生意。在美国,估计核心科学读物的出版市场价值在70亿至110亿美元之间。国际科学技术医疗出版协会指出,全球范围内有超过2000家出版商专攻这些领域。他们每年差不多16000种期刊上发表超过120万篇论文。

       现在这种情况在改变。根据OECD的报告,现在差不多75%的学术期刊可在线查阅。全新的商业模式在逐步显现;该报告的作者主要确认了三种模式。首先是所谓的大生意,即有机构订购期刊,通过签订网址许可协议,为网上期刊的查阅付费。第二种是开放权限出版模式,典型的是让作者(或其他雇主)支付论文出版的费用。最后一种是开放权限档案模式,即背后有诸如大学或国际实验室这样的组织为机构提供知识库存。其他现有的模式是这三种模式的结合,例如延迟权限开放模式,即期刊载允许任何想要阅读一篇论文的人免费阅读之前,在前六个月,只允许订阅者查阅论文。所有这些都会改变同行审阅论文的传统流程,至少在论文出版领域是这样。

    Text 3

    In the early 1960s, Wilt Chamberlain was one of the only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.

    The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today's people---especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations---apparently reached their limit in the cariy1960s, And they aren't likely to get any taller. “In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we've pretty much gone as we can go,” says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly common practice of recruiting payers from all over world.

    Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients---notably, protein---to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century,                                                                           under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height Yet according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average heights 5′9 ″ for man. 5′4″ for women---hasn't really changed since 1960.

    Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth, larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs. “There are some real constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism,” says anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University.

    Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon. Claire C, Gorbon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alternation. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment Gordon says that by and large, “you could use today's data and feel fairly confident.”

    1. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to____.
    2. illustrate the change of height of NBA players in the U.S.
    3. show the popularity of NBA players.
    4. compare different generations of NBA players.
    5. assess the achievements of famous NBA players.
    6. Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?
    7. Genetic modification.
    8. Natural environment
    9. Living standards.
    10. Daily exercise.

    33.On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

    1. Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.
    2. Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.
    3. Americans are the tallest on average in the world.
    4. Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.
    5. We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future____.
    6. the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.
    7. the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged
    8. generic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.
    9. the existing data of human height will still be applicable.
    10. The text intends to tell us that____.
    11. the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.
    12. human height is becoming even more predictable.
    13. Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.
    14. the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.

    文章解析:根据中心统一原则确定,

    文章首段主题句是In the early 1960s, Wilt Chamberlain was one of the only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet.在20世纪60年代早期,Wilt Chamberlain是美国NBA球员中身高超过7英尺的三个球员之一。

    第二段确定段落内容方向的语句是The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing.体育界的这一趋势可能掩盖了一个不为人知的现实:美国人普遍停止长高了。

    第三段确定段落内容方向的语句是But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height.但是当饮食和健康状况提高后,孩子或者成年人平均每20年身高就增加一英寸半,这已经成为众所周知的声高增长的一个长期趋势。

    第四段确定段落内容方向的语句是Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height.从遗传方面来看,避免过高是有好处的。

    第五段确定段落内容方向的语句是 Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon.遗传的极限可以突破,但是不要期待很快发生。

    不难发现,这篇文章围绕着美国人的身高问题来展开。

    题目解析:

    31.结构题Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to____.

    选项A. illustrate the change of height of NBA players in the U.S.

    阐述了美国NBA球员身高的变化。

    1. show the popularity of NBA players.

    表明NBA球员深受欢迎。

    1. compare different generations of NBA players.

    比较不同年代NBA球员。

    1. assess the achievements of famous NBA players.

    评价著名NBA球员的成绩。

    本题目作为结构题,应该将例子回归原文,划定例子范围,明确找对应的论点。将Chamberlain的例子回归原文定位在第一段In the early 1960s, Wilt Chamberlain was one of the only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. 不难发现,这两个句子都是Chamberlain的例子。下面的句子为对应的论点。句子叙述到The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.这些年来,那些主要从事主要职业的球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队员以适应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯。显然,Chamberlain的例子是为了表达身高变化这一话题。选项A. illustrate the change of height of NBA players in the U.S.. 阐述了美国NBA球员身高的变化,与相关信息句动作“从事主要职业的球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队员以适应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯”直接关联,体现“同意替换”的关系;选项B. show the popularity of NBA players. 表明NBA球员深受欢迎,与相关信息句动作“从事主要职业的球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队员以适应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“NBA球员受欢迎”;选项C. compare different generations of NBA players. 比较不同年代NBA球员,与相关信息句动作“从事主要职业的球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队员以适应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“比较不同年代的NBA球员”;选项D. assess the achievements of famous NBA players. 评价著名NBA球员的成绩,与相关信息句动作“从事主要职业的球赛的球员的身材发生了巨大的变化,经理们十分愿意调整队员以适应不断增多的越来越高大的身躯”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“评价NBA球员的成绩”。因此,正确答案为A. illustrate the change of height of NBA players in the U.S. 阐述了美国NBA球员身高的变化。

    (补充:结构题:根据文章具体的事例推测该事例所证明的论点。题干中一般会出现具体事例同时出现show, explain, prove, illustrate, demonstrate, justify等标志词。提问的方式为:表明什么?目的是什么?借助该例子在谈论什么?解题要点:将题干中的具体事例回归原文划定例子范围,明确找例子对应的论点。即,验证前、后相邻的句子是否为语言完整、形式间接、观点明确的论点句,并利用已经验证的论点句与选项比较做出准确判断。如果上下相邻的句子不是论点句,那么,前或后相邻段落的主题句便是相关信息句。

    32.细节题Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?

    选项A. Genetic modification 基因突变

    1. Natural environment 自然环境
    2. Living standards 生活水平
    3. Daily exercise 日常联系

    本题目作为细节题,要利用定位词在文章中定位相关信息句。文章第三段在分析美国人身材高大的原因。利用定位词定位到段落首句Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients---notably, protein---to feed expanding tissues. 人超过20岁之后,很少会继续长高。长高需要卡路里和营养素---特别是蛋白质---来滋养不断扩张的组织。不难发现,人类身高增加的原因是涉入卡路里和营养。因此,正确答案为C. Living standards 生活水平。

     

    33.主旨题On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

    选项A. Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.

    非美国本土人增加了美国的平均身高。

    1. Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.  

    人类身高由于直立行走的姿势决定的。

    1. Americans are the tallest on average in the world.

           在整个世界中,美国人的平均身高是最高的。

    1. Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.

           身材大的婴儿成年时趋向于变得更高。

    本题目作为主旨题,提问作者最为同意的观点,应该利用尾段主题句或者倒数第二段与I有关的语句确定答案。尾段主题句叙述到Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon.遗传的极限可以突破,但是不要期待很快发生。不难发现,这个句子信息与四个选项没有任何关联。倒数第二段第三句叙述到Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs.而且,尽管人类已经直立行走了几百万年,但为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来的持续重压。选项A. Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation. 非美国本土人增加了美国的平均身高,与相关信息句动作“为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来的持续重压”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“非美国本土人增加了美国的平均身高”;选项B. Human height is conditioned by the upright posture. 人类身高由于直立行走的姿势决定的,与相关信息句动作“为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来的持续重压”直接关联;选项C. Americans are the tallest on average in the world. 在整个世界中,美国人的平均身高是最高的,与相关信息句动作“为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来的持续重压”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“美国人的平均身高是最高的”;选项D. Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood. 身材大的婴儿成年时趋向于变得更高,与相关信息句动作“为了保持这种站立的姿势,我们的双脚仍然很费力,也难以承受巨大肢体所带来的持续重压”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“身材大的婴儿成年时趋向于变得更高”。因此,正确答案为B. Human height is conditioned by the upright posture. 人类身高由于直立行走的姿势决定的。

    34.推断题We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future____.

    选项A. the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.

    服装产业将重新考虑制服的尺寸。

    1. the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.

    军队的制服设计将保持不变。

    1. generic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.

    基因检测将被应用到选择运动员中。

    1. the existing data of human height will still be applicable.

    人类身高现存的数据仍然适用。

    本题目作为推断题,要明确找到指定段落的主题句。尾段叙述到Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon. Claire C, Gorbon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alternation. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment Gordon says that by and large, “you could use today's data and feel fairly confident.”不难发现,段落中间句前没有转折词,段落首句Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon. Claire C, Gorbon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alternation.是间接引语,明确是细节。段落尾句是直接引语you could use today's data and feel fairly confident.你可以相当自信的采用现在的数据。而且引语语句语言完整,形式简洁,观点明确,确定是主题句。选项A. the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size. 服装产业将重新考虑制服的尺寸,与相关信息句动作“相当自信的采用现在的数据”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“服装企业将重新考虑制服的尺寸”;选项B. the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged. 军队的制服设计将保持不变,与相关信息句动作“相当自信的采用现在的数据”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“军队制服设计将保持不变”;选项C. generic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen. 基因检测将被应用到选择运动员中,与相关信息句动作“相当自信的采用现在的数据”没有任何关联,相关信息句中没有涉及“基因检测将被应用到选择运动员中”;选项D. the existing data of human height will still be applicable. 人类身高现存的数据仍然适用,与相关信息句动作“相当自信的采用现在的数据”直接关联。因此,正确答案为D. the existing data of human height will still be applicable.人类身高现存的数据仍然适用。

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